Asahi Pentax ES

aka Asahi Pentax Electro Spotmatic
aka Honeywell Pentax ES

35mm MF film SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:October 1971
System: Asahi Pentax M42 (1957)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:M42 [45.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:8 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:940g
Dimensions:143x98x91mm

Manufacturer description #1

Asahi Pentax ES is the most exciting 35 mm SLR camera on the market today. It comes equipped with a through-the-lens metering system with focal-plane electronic shutter for automatic exposure control. The fully automatic electronic shutter operates just like an electronic computer assuring you of perfect exposures everytime. The new electronic shutter lets you shoot automatically at any speed between 1/1000 and 8 seconds! If the exact shutter speed should be 1/459, 1/733 or 1/952 seconds, then that's the shutter speed that will be automatically selected. Our patented memory device and electronic shutter make it possible. There's also an exposure control dial for intentional over- or under-exposures.

The Pentax ES is the only automatic single-lens reflex camera that works automatically without special lenses. It operates automatically with virtually all Takumar lenses, as well as, bellows, extension tubes, and other close-up accessories. The reason is, unlike other cameras, the automation is incorporated into the body itself, not into the lens. Pentax ES is equipped with a Super-Multi-Coated Takumar lens. Excusively developed by Pentax, Super-Multi-Coated Takumar lenses reduce flare and boost contrast to a degree far beyond what was previously possible in optical technology. Your pictures will have more detail and richer colors than is possible with any other system at any price.

***

TYPE: 35mm TTL-metering single-lens reflex camera with focal-plane electronic shutter for automatic exposure control.

FILM AND PICTURE SIZE: 35mm film (20 or 36 exposures). 24mm x 36mm.

SHUTTERS: TTL-metering electronic shutter for automatic exposure control + mechanical shutter for manual speed selection. Horizontal run focal plane shutter. Electronic shutter speeds: Unlimited variation between 8 and 1/1000 sec. Mechanical shutter: B, 1/60 (X), 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 & 1/1000 sec.

VIEWFINDER: Eye-level pentaprism finder with Fresnel lens + crossmicroprism. 0.89x magnification with 50mm lens. -1.0 dioptry. Shutter speed calibration, TTL meter needle and battery "LIVE" mark in the viewfinder screen.

FOCUSING: Turn the distance scale ring until the subject image in the viewfinder comes into sharp focus.

REFLEX MIRROR: Instant return type.

FILM ADVANCE: Ratchet type rapid wind lever. 10 deg. pre-advance and 160 deg. advance angle. With convenient "Cocked" indicator.

FILM REWIND: Rapid rewind crank. Film rewind button on base of camera body releases film from take-up spool rewind.

FILM EXPOSURE COUNTER: Automatic re-set type.

COCKED INDICATOR: A red disk appears in a small window alongside the shutter release button when the shutter is cocked, and blacks out when it is released.

LENS MOUNT: 42mm thread (Pentax-mount).

FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION: FP + X contacts for conventional flash cord connection. X contact on hot shoe for convenient flash cordless connection.

EXPOSURE METER: CdS-activated TTL meter for open-diaphragm and stop-down reading. Light measurement range: EV1-18 with ASA 100 film. ASA speed scale: 20-1600.

EXPOSURE FACTOR CONTROL DIAL: 1x for normal exposure. 2x, 4x, 1/2x for intentional over- or under-exposure.

BATTERY: 6V silver battery (Eveready #544).

FILM TYPE INDICATOR: black & white, color daylight, color tungsten and EMP. (empty).

Manufacturer description #2

Newest of the Honeywell Pentax cameras, the ES is the world 's first and only 35mm SLR with automation built into the body of the camera - first and only automatic with fully electronic shutter system.

You simply focus and shoot. The patented Pentax memory device computes and delivers an infinite number of precise exposures between 8 and 1/1,000 second - automatically. If 1/555 second will give you the best possible exposure, that's exactly what you get.

No needles to match. No time-consuming computing of exposures when your subject moves from sunlight to shadow. So fast and foolproof even a beginner can take great pictures.

Because the automation is built into the body of this camera, no special lenses are needed. You can use any of the Takumars you already own- any of the 22 flare-taming Super-Multi-Coated Takumars now available. Extension tubes, microscopes and special macro lenses can also be used automatically.

And there are plenty of built-in creative options. For special effects, you can automatically program for under or over-exposure. Or you can override the automation completely by flipping the dial to manual.

Be assured that Pentax engineers didn't let automation compromise the classic Pentax styling and "feel". All electronic elements are tucked neatly into the camera's baseplate. As a result, the ES is less than one-quarter inch taller and only six ounces heavier than the Spotmatic II.

The ES, of course, has many other fine features such as FP or X sync, battery check, PC terminals and hot shoe and a choice of flare-taming Super-Multi-Coated Takumar lenses.

From the Classic Camera magazine (February 1998)

Apart from a few exceptions, nowadays all 35mm SLRs have vertically running, electronically controlled ultra fast metal curtain shutters, with completely automatic speed selection. The first examples of these shutters date back to the mid 1970s and were preceded by electronically controlled shutters with manual speed selection. The first electronically controlled, completely automatic shutter - which functioned without the aid of any accessory - was officially presented on October 20th, 1971 on the Japanese Electro Spotmatic camera. It was a horizontally running cloth shutter, but it marked the beginning of a new generation of 35mm SLRs.

Before the Electro Spotmatic, some German and Japanese SLRs were announced with electronic shutter speed control. The first of these was the little known Praktica PL electronic, announced in 1966. This was followed in 1968 by the Contarex Super Electronic and in 1969 by the Yashica TL electro X. However, apart from the Contarex, which had an automatic speed control achieved through a rather complex external accessory, these cameras were exclusively manual. The Electro Spotmatic was the first 35mm SLR to offer full automatic speed control with every lens and without having to resort to external accessories.

After the Electro Spotmatic was announced, many 35mm SLRs started offering similar performance, thereby saturating the market and creating a slump. The 35mm market became divided into those designed before the Electro Spotmatic and those designed after. The technological revolution embodied by the Electro Spotmatic implied a radical change in the design criteria for SLR cameras and opened the way to a series of genetic mutations which would lead, in little more than a decade, to the introduction of fully programmed exposure and onwards to the several programmed exposure options offered today.

The Electro Spotmatic was placed on the market in October 1971, albeit only in Japan and was styled like an Asahi Pentax Spotmatic II. The Electro Spotmatic used the same camera body, controls and top plate with a hotshoe contact on top of the prism. The base plate, on the other hand was thicker - contributing to a greater height in the Electro Spotmatic - and there was no self timer which was replaced by a novel battery housing. Finished in black, the Electro Spotmatic had its name engraved in white at the front to eschew any doubts that may arise. The first electronic SLR by Asahi Optical could automatically select the shutter speed according the film sensitivity and the intensity of the light reaching the meter. Metering could be undertaken by closing the iris to the required aperture on all screw mount lenses and with all the accessories, such as extension tubes or macro bellows, placed between camera body and lens. As well as the "Automatic" position covering all speeds from the slowest ones to 1/1000s, the speed selector on the Electro Spotmatic also offers manual selection from 1/60s to 1/1000s and B setting.

With the new range of dedicated lenses - designated by the name SMC Takumar - the Electro Spotmatic could meter the light at full aperture thanks to an aperture simulator. As the choice of shutter speed is an exclusive function of the light intercepted by the TTL meter, it is possible to install any kind of lens or accessory on the Electro Spotmatic without losing the automatic exposure. Contrary to mechanical or automatic 35mm SLRs with servo assisted aperture, automatic mode in the Electro Spotmatic does not require special lenses or complicated connections between lens and camera body. The automatic exposure philosophy is completely reversed. It is no longer a question of coupling the aperture control as in the Konica and Miranda, but of adapting the shutter speed to the light conditions, leaving the photographer free to choose the aperture setting he or she prefers as a function of the depth of field. The small revolution represented by the Electro Spotmatic took the photographic industry by storm, and all companies would compete to follow in the footsteps of Asahi Optical.

The original Electro Spotmatic was made in limited numbers and was replaced, just a few months after the official launch by a functionally and aesthetically identical SLR, but with completely updated electronic components. The new camera was called the ES and was launched with the international markets in mind. The Asahi Pentax ES was announced at the Japan Camera Show and at Photokina in 1972 and the acronym ES, rather than for Electro Spotmatic, stood for Electronic Shutter. The Asahi Pentax ES offered the same performance as the Electro Spotmatic, did not have a self timer and offered a manual speed selection range between 1/60s and 1/1000s, while in automatic mode it featured slow speeds of up to 8 seconds. 98mm high, compared to the 93mm of the Spotmatic II and with a weight of 678 grams compared to the Spotmatic II's 624, the Asahi Pentax ES was almost exclusively offered finished in black and bore the legend ES engraved at the front. To power the electronic circuits, the Asahi Pentax ES used a bulky 6 Volt battery, housed at the front of the camera in a large recess covered by a threaded cover. A needle in the viewfinder - placed on the right against a scale graduated from 1s to 1/1000s - indicated the shutter speed, while in the traditional Spotmatic there were only + and - signs to indicate over- or under-exposure. In automatic mode, the needle indicated the shutter speed selected by the meter, while in manual mode, it indicated the speed to select manually. Without batteries, the Asahi Pentax ES could be used by selecting the five available manual shutter speeds, but of course it lost the possibility of TTL metering. Battery condition check was achieved by means of a small button placed on the top plate next to the film rewind crank. Film speed selection was from 20 to 1600 ASA and the setting dial was placed co-axially to the rewind crank. It could be adjusted by lifting the outer rim and was complemented by an exposure correction setting which allowed a range from 1/2x to 4x. Asahi Pentax ES cameras were designated by a batch of serial numbers starting from 6,500,000 engraved on the top plate and followed by the suffix ES.

From the editor

The weight and dimensions are indicated for the camera body with the standard lens mounted.

Similar cameras (120)

35mm full frame • Manual focus • Film • Singe-lens reflex • M42 mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Contax D
aka ConSol
aka HEXACON
aka Pentacon
M, 1/1000 -- M 1951
Contax E
aka Pentacon E
M, 1/1000 Window M 1956
Contax F
aka Pentacon F
M, 1/1000 -- M 1956
Contax FB
aka Pentacon FB
M, 1/1000 Window M 1956
Contax FBM
aka Pentacon FBM
M, 1/1000 Window M 1958
Contax FM
aka Pentacon FM
M, 1/1000 -- M 1958
Contax S M, 1/1000 -- M 1949
Cosina Voigtlander Bessaflex TM M, 1/2000 TTL • WA M 2003
Exa 1b
aka Exa 1c
M, 1/175 -- M 1977
Exakta Twin TL 42 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M
Fujica AZ-1 E, 1/1000 TTL • OA AM 1977
Fujica ST601 M, 1/700 TTL • WA M 1975
Fujica ST605 M, 1/700 TTL • WA M 1976
Fujica ST605 II M, 1/700 TTL • OA M 1978
Fujica ST605N M, 1/700 TTL • WA M 1978
Fujica ST701 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1970
Fujica ST705 M, 1/1500 TTL • OA M 1976
Fujica ST705W M, 1/1500 TTL • OA M 1978
Fujica ST801 M, 1/2000 TTL • OA M 1972
Fujica ST901 E, 1/1000 TTL • OA AM 1974
Mamiya DSX 1000 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1974
Mamiya DSX 1000B M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1975
Mamiya DSX 500 M, 1/500 TTL • OA M 1974
Mamiya MSX 1000 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1974
Mamiya MSX 500 M, 1/500 TTL • OA M 1974
Mamiya/Sekor 1000 DTL M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1968
Mamiya/Sekor 1000 TL M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1966
Mamiya/Sekor 2000 DTL M, 1/2000 TTL • WA M 1969
Mamiya/Sekor 500 DTL M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1968
Mamiya/Sekor 500 TL M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1966
Mamiya/Sekor CP
aka Mamiya/Sekor CWP
M, 1/1000 Window M 1964
Olympus FTL M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1970
Pentacon super M, 1/2000 TTL • OA M 1968
Pentaflex SL M, 1/500 -- M 1967
Petri PENTA M, 1/500 -- M 1959
Praktica M, 1/500 -- M 1949
Praktica DTL 2 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1978
Praktica DTL 3 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1979
Praktica EE 2 E, 1/1000 TTL • OA AM 1977
Praktica EE 3 E, 1/1000 TTL • OA AM 1979
Praktica FX
aka Praktiflex FX
M, 1/500 -- M 1952
Praktica FX 2
aka Praktica FX 3
M, 1/500 -- M 1956
Praktica III M, 1/500 -- M 1955
Praktica IV (early) M, 1/500 -- M 1959
Praktica IV (late) M, 1/500 -- M 1960
Praktica IV B M, 1/500 Window M 1961
Praktica IV BM M, 1/500 Window M 1961
Praktica IV F M, 1/500 -- M 1963
Praktica IV FB M, 1/500 Window M 1963
Praktica IV M M, 1/500 -- M 1961
Praktica L
aka Praktica autoreflex S
M, 1/1000 -- M 1969
Praktica L 2 M, 1/1000 -- M 1975
Praktica LB
aka Praktica autoreflex SL
M, 1/1000 Window M 1972
Praktica LB 2 M, 1/1000 Window M 1976
Praktica LLC M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1969
Praktica LTL
aka Praktica autoreflex S-TL
M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1970
Praktica LTL 2 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1975
Praktica LTL 3 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1975
Praktica mat M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1965
Praktica MTL 3 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1978
Praktica MTL 5 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1983
Praktica MTL 50 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1985
Praktica MTL 5B
aka Praktica MTL NOVA B
aka Praktica TL 5B
M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1985
Praktica nova M, 1/500 -- M 1964
Praktica nova B M, 1/500 Window M 1965
Praktica PL electronic E, 1/500 -- M 1967
Praktica PL nova I M, 1/500 -- M 1967
Praktica PL nova IB M, 1/500 Window M 1967
Praktica PLC 2 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1975
Praktica PLC 3 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1978
Praktica super TL M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1968
Praktica super TL 2
aka Praktica 1000
M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1975
Praktica super TL 3 M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1978
Praktica super TL1000
aka Praktica MTL 3
aka Praktica MTL 5
aka Praktica NOVA II
aka Praktica PM 3
aka Praktica TL 3
M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1980
Praktica super TL500 M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1981
Praktica V F M, 1/500 -- M 1964
Praktica V FB M, 1/500 Window M 1965
Praktica VLC M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1974
Praktica VLC 2 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1976
Praktica VLC 3 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1976
Ricoh Auto TLS EE M, 1/1000 TTL • OA SM 1976
Ricoh Singlex II M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1976
Ricoh Singlex TLS M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1967
Ricoh SLX 500 M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1975
Ricoh TLS 401 M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1970
Sigma Mark-I M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1975
Voigtlander VSL1 (TM)
aka Ifbaflex M 102
M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1974
Yashica Electro AX E, 1/1000 TTL • WA AM 1972
Yashica FFT M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1973
Yashica J-3 M, 1/500 Window M 1962
Yashica J-4 M, 1/500 Window M 1965
Yashica J-5 M, 1/1000 Window M 1964
Yashica J-7 M, 1/1000 Window M 1966
Yashica J-P M, 1/500 -- M 1964
Yashica Penta J
aka Yashica Reflex 35
M, 1/500 -- M 1961
Yashica TL M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1968
Yashica TL Electro X E, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1968
Yashica TL Electro X ITS E, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1970
Yashica TL-E M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1969
Yashica TL-Electro M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1972
Yashica TL-Super M, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1966
Zeiss Ikon Icarex 35 (TM) M, 1/1000 -- M 1969
Zeiss Ikon Icarex 35S (TM) M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1969
Zeiss Ikon SL706 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1971
Zenit-10 M, 1/500 Window M 1982
Zenit-11 M, 1/500 Window M 1982
Zenit-122[V] M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1990
Zenit-12sd
aka Zenit-12xp
M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1983
Zenit-15M M, 1/500 TTL • WA M
Zenit-16 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1975
Zenit-18 E, 1/1000 TTL • OA AM 1980
Zenit-19 E, 1/1000 TTL • WA M 1979
Zenit-312m M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1999
Zenit-412DX M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 2000
Zenit-412LS M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 2002
Zenit-E M, 1/500 Window M 1965
Zenit-EM M, 1/500 Window M 1972
Zenit-ET M, 1/500 Window M 1981
Zenit-TTL
aka Zenit-12
M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1978
Zenit-V M, 1/500 -- M 1968
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.

The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.