Nikon FE2

35mm MF film SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:1983
System: Nikon F (1959)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:8 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:550g
Dimensions:142.5x90x57.5mm

Manufacturer description #1

The Nikon FE2 combines the latest advances in photographic technology with a time-proven body design for the utmost in performance. A Nikon-designed high-speed titanium shutter provides a range of shutter speeds from eight full seconds to 1/4000 sec. On automatic, the speeds are stepless and electronically timed, while digttal quartz timing ensures consistent shutter-speed accuracy in manual. Synchronization with electronic flash is now possible at all speeds up to 1/250 sec.

The FE2 features a full-information viewfinder, which displays all camera functions. The shutter-speed scale has a green needle to confirm automatic operation or indicate the manually-selected shutter speed. A black needle moves to point to the metered speed. The window at the top shows the set lens aperture, and an LED on the right side lights to remind the user when the exposure compensation dial has been switched from its normal position. A new chemical process applied to the interchangeable focusing screen delivers about one stop more light so subjects literally snap into focus.

An energy-saving meter switch is built into the oversized shutter-release button. Moving the film-advance lever to its 30° standoff position unlocks the shutter release, and slight pressure on it activates the meter for 16 seconds. The FE2 is operable without batteries when the shutter speed dial is set to the "M250" position for mechanical shutter firing at 1/250 sec. To bias the meter for unusual lighting conditions the exposure compensation dial can be set from +2EV to -2EV in 1/3-stop increments. And, on automatic, the FE2's exposure memory lock can be used to properly expose a subject standing near the edge of the frame. Because the memory lock freezes the automatic shutter-speed setting, photographers can quickly bracket exposures by changing the aperture. The FE2 also features a depth-of-field preview lever, electronic quartz-timed self-timer and multiple exposure lever.

The camera also incorporates automatic through-the-lens (TTL) flash metering. A light sensor at the bottom of the FE2 camera body measures the precise amount of light striking the film and automatically controls flash output. When the Nikon Speedlight SB-15 or SB-16B is mounted on the FE2 s hot shoe, turned on and recycled, the camera's shutter is automatically switched to 1/250 sec. X-synch speed from the AUTO mode or any manual speed of 1/500 sec. or faster. At slower speeds, the shutter fires at the set speed while TTL flash control is maintained. An LED at the top of the eyepiece lights to confirm that the flash is charged. This same LED will blink after an exposure if the flash emits its full light output, signalling an under-exposure may occur. The FE2 also has a standard PC terminal. The FE2 can be adapted for true motor-drive operation by directly coupling the MD-12 Motor Drive. To imprint the date or time onto the film, the FE2 accepts either the MF-12 or MF-16 Data Back. Backed by the Nikon system of lenses and accessories, the FE2 offers limitless photographic possibilities.

High-Speed Titanium Shutter

The vertically-travelling titanium shutter curtains traverse the film gate at nearly twice the speed of conventional shutters, a mere 3.3 milliseconds. This all but eliminates image distortion, a phenomenon common to focal plane shutters. The etched, modified honeycomb-pattern titanium used in the curtains assures great durability and a more than 50% reduction in shutter mass, so there's virtually no camera shake in hand-held shooting. Shutter travel is stable and a wide, 1.8mm slit width at 1/4000 sec. virtually eliminates any chance of uneven exposures.

Full-Information Viewfinder

Nonobstructed viewfinder shows Aperture-Direct Readout at top; shutter-speed scale has green bar to show auto mode or manually set shutter speed; moving needle indicates metered speed and over/under-exposure warning. When exposure compensation dial is switched from normal "0" position, LED at right lights.

Shutter-Speed Dial

Large knurled dial locks at 'W' position for aperture-priority automatic exposure control. Center button unlocks dial to set any quartz-timed manual speed from 8-1/4000 sec., plus B. Flash sync is marked in red at "250." In the event of battery failure, set dial at "M250" to drop mirror and fire shutter mechanically at 1/250 sec.

TTL Flash Metering

When used with the Nikon Speedlight SB-15 or SB-16B, the silicon photo diode at base of mirror box measures flash illumination directly off the film plane during the exposure. These units automatically program the camera's shutter to the proper X-synch speed (1/250 sec.) from the AUTO mode or manual speed above 1/250 sec. and activate the FE2's LED flash ready-light at the top of the eyepiece. LED blinks after exposure if full light output may result in underexposed flash exposure. Lens may be set at any aperture from f2 to f22, depending on subject distance.

Interchangeable Focusing Screens

The extra-bright K2 focusing screen supplied with the FE2 has central split-image rangefinder spot and micro-prism collar with 12mm diameter center-weighted metering sensitivity area. To remove, press the latch at the top of the mirror box. Optional B2 screen with matte focusing spot or E2 with etched horizontal and vertical grid lines are available for the FE2, FM2 and FE cameras. New screens may be used in FM2 and FE with exposure compensation.

Exposure Compensation

Biases the automatic or manual meter reading from +2EV to - 2EV in precise 1/3-stop increments. Chrome button releases dial. Warning signal lights in the viewfinder to remind user that the dial has been moved from its normal position.

Self-Timer / Exposure Memory Lock

To set self-timer for 10-second firing delay, the lever is rotated counterclockwise. Timing cycle may be cancelled. Lever doubles as an exposure memory lock. When pushed towards the lens mount, the automatic shutter-speed setting is held. This permits photographing a subject near the edge of the frame after taking a proper, center-weighted meter reading. It also allows fast bracketing on automatic by changing the aperture.

Meter Switch / Release Lock

Film advance lever unlocks shutter release button when offset 30° from camera body. Energy-saving meter switch is activated by light pressure on shutter release and turns off automatically 16 seconds after pressure is removed. Accepts standard threaded mechanical cable release.

Depth-of-Field Preview

Depth-of-field preview lever enables visual determination of actual overall range of sharp focus by stopping down the lens to its set aperture.

Multiple-Exposure Lever

Lever adjacent to film advance disengages transport mechanism for intentional multiple exposures. Film registration is well maintained even while one makes multiple exposures with a motor drive. Frame counter does not advance.

Manufacturer description #2

TYPE OF CAMERA: Electronically-controlled 35mm SLR

PICTURE FORMAT: 24mm x 36mm (standard 35mm format)

LENS MOUNT: Nikon bayonet mount

LENSES: AI-Nikkor and Nikon Series E lenses; Non-AI lenses cannot be mounted

SHUTTER: Electronically-controlled, vertical-travel metal focal plane shutter with titanium curtains

SHUTTER RELEASE: Mechanical: on Auto/Manual; center-threaded shutter-release button accepts AR-3 Cable Release; button locked when film-advance lever is flush with camera body; Mechanical backup shutter release: M250 (1/250 sec.) and B

METER SWITCH: Pressing shutter-release button halfway down switches meter on; meter stays on for 16 seconds then automatically switches off; meter turned off when shutter speed dial is set at M250 or B

EXPOSURE CONTROL: Aperture-priority automatic exposure control with shutter speed dial set on A; manual exposure control by turning shutter speed dial and/or lens aperture

SHUTTER SPEEDS: On Auto: stepless speeds from 8 to 1/4000 sec.; on Manual: 16 quartz-timed speeds from 8 to 1/4000 sec., on Mechanical: M250 (1/250 sec.), B

FILM-ADVANCE LEVER: Single-stroke type with 30 deg. stand-off angle and 135 deg. winding angle

VIEWFINDER: Fixed-eyelevel pentaprism type; 0.86X magnification with 50mm lens at infinity; 93% frame coverage

VIEWFINDER DISPLAY: Shutter speed scale with meter needle and shutter speed/exposure mode indicator bar and over-/underexposure warning area; aperture-direct readout of set f/number; LED exposure compensation mark lights when dial is off "0" position

FOCUSING SCREEN: Interchangeable matte Fresnel focusing screen with central split-image rangefinder spot and micro-prism collar (Nikon Type K2) as standard

REFLEX MIRROR: Automatic instant-return mirror

SELF-TIMER: Quartz-timed 10-sec. delay; may be cancelled

EXPOSURE MEMORY LOCK: Via self-timer lever

MULTIPLE EXPOSURE LEVER: Provided

ACCESSORY SHOE: Standard ISO type; hot shoe, ready-light, monitor and TTL control contacts provided

FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION: On Auto: 1/250 sec.; On Manual: 1/250 sec. or lower, or at 1/250 sec. only when shutter speed dial is set between 1/500 sec. and 1/4000 sec.

PC TERMINAL: Provided; threaded

FLASH READY-LIGHT: LED visible at top of eyepiece; lights up when SB-16B, SB-15, SB-E or SB-10 Speedlight is charged; blinks to warn of underexposure during TTL operation

EXPOSURE METERING: Through-the-Iens center-weighted full-aperture-exposure measuring system using two silicon photo diodes

METERING RANGE: EV 1 to EV 18 at ASA/ISO 100 with f1.4 lens

TTL FLASH METERING: Photo cell at base of mirror box measures flash exposures off the film plane during TTL operation with SB-15 or SB-16B

EXPOSURE COMPENSATION: ±2EV in 1/3 increments

FILM SPEED RANGE: ASA/ISO 12 to 4000

FRAME COUNTER: Additive type; automatically resets to "S" two frames before "0", when camera back is opened; on Auto, shutter speed is 1/250sec. until frame "1" is reached

POWER SOURCE: Choice of one 3V lithium battery, two 1.55 V silver-oxide batteries or two 1.5V alkaline-manganese batteries; optional Anti-Cold Battery Holder DB-2 accepting two AA-type penlight batteries available

BATTERY CHECK: By pressing shutter-release button halfway while looking through the viewfinder; if there is sufficient power, the black needle will move; if not, the black needle will remain at the bottom of the shutter-speed scale

DEPTH-OF-FIELD PREVIEW LEVER: Provided

FILM REWIND: By crank provided

CAMERA BACK: Interchangeable with MF-12 or MF-16 Data Back; pops open when the film rewind-knob is pulled up as camera back lock is pushed counterclockwise; memo holder provided

Similar cameras (4)

35mm full frame • Manual focus • Film • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kiev-17 M, 1/1000 -- M 1978
Kiev-19 M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1985
Kiev-19M M, 1/500 TTL • OA M 1988
Kiev-20 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1983
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.