Nikon F

35mm MF film SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:April 1959
System: Nikon F (1959)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Mechanical
Speeds:1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:None
Exposure modes:Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:1010g
Dimensions:147x98x101mm

Manufacturer description #1

There are many reasons why the Nikon F is the fastest selling big ticket 35mm camera, today.

Its remarkably brilliant finder and its extraordinary ease of handling by themselves distinguish the Nikon from other fine 35mm reflex cameras.

But in addition, the Nikon F offers more automatic features, more design innovations, more lenses - all Nikkors (ranging from 8mm super wide angle through 1000mm super tele-photo), and a wider range of unique accessories, than any other camera. For example, the Dealer can sell the Nikon F with the remarkable new Photomic Finder (Nikon F Photomic) which incorporates a meter and prism finder in the same housing, or he can sell the Nikon F with the conventional prism finder, and have the opportunity to sell the Photomic finder, or the conventional meter, afterwards.

The performance and durability of the Nikon F have been proved under the most demanding conditions 'man shoots' and satellite launchings, while attached to speed boats, racing cars and planes, in extremes of heat and cold. It has withstood the incredible demands of continuous motor operation - a performance matched by no other 35mm camera.

Today the Nikon F is the '35' used by more Professional, Scientific and Industrial photographers than any other camera. And it presents the Dealer with more opportunities for profitable lens and accessory sales.

NIKON "F" AUTOMATIC REFLEX CAMERA - 35mm; 36 exposure, 1 x 1 1/2 Available with interchangeable Photomic finder (Nikon F Photomic) - combining a meter and prism finder in one housing - or a conventional pentaprism eyelevel finder. Features instant return automatic mirror and instant reopen automatic diaphragm; built-in depth of field preview control; built-in ground glass rangefinder - interchangeable with standard ground glass. Provision for locking mirror up; accepts diaphragm and shutter coupled exposure meter; electric motor drive. Accepts accessory waist level finder; 13 shutter speeds, click-stop, from 1 to 1/1000 plus T & B, on single non-rotating dial; full synch plus electronic flash at 1/60; auto zero reset exposure counter; calibrated, delayed action self timer; removable back; fixed take up spool; single stroke rapid film advance; high speed film rewind; tripod socket built into camera body.

INTERCHANGEABLE FINDERS AND FOCUSING SCREENS

Eye-level photomic finder (meter and prism in one housing) provides full size image of the entire field even when wearing glasses. Interchanges with pentaprism finder or with accessory waist-level hood and magnifier. Finder field coincides precisely with film area - covers 100% of the image as it will record on the film.

Convex, lenticular focusing ground glass gives maximum and uniform brightness over the entire field. Has built-in prismatic, split-image rangefinder as a further aid to precise focusing. Interchanges easily with other types of Nikon ground glasses.

INSTANT- RETURN AUTOMATIC MIRROR

Whisper-quiet, lightning fast-the mirror returns to precise focusing-viewing position the instant the exposure is made, even with the camera held upside down. A special, patented brake helps eliminate vibration from the mirror's action.

INSTANT-REOPEN AUTOMATIC DIAPHRAGM

Focus and view with the lens wide open. At the instant of exposure, the diaphragm automatically closes down to 'taking' aperture. Then, instantly, automatically it reopens again to full aperture. So unique is the design of the Nikon automatic diaphragm that even when pre-set for intermediate openings-between markings - the action of the diaphragm will not disturb the setting. When interchanging lenses, no attention need be paid as to whether or not the shutter had been previously wound. The diaphragm is fully automatic and foolproof.

INSTANT-ACTION PREVIEW CONTROL

Press the Preview Control button, and the diaphragm stops down. Permits you to see the depth-of-field at 'taking' aperture - or to select 'taking' aperture on the basis of desired depth-of-field. Release the button, and the diaphragm reopens instantly. The Preview Control is independent of the shutter release mechanism, and cannot cause accidental exposure.

Manufacturer description #2

  • 35mm single lens reflex camera.
  • Picture size: 24mmx36mm.
  • Interchangeable Eye-Level finder with penta-prism supplied as standard equipment.
  • Interchangeable type A focusing screen supplied as standard fitment. Vibration-free, automatic instant return mirror which can be placed in locked up position.
  • Focal plane shutter using ball bearing and titanium foil curtain.
  • Built-in calibrated self-timer.
  • Flash synchronization for all speeds up to 1/1000 sec., with provisions for electronic flash up to 1/60 sec.
  • Press button type depth of field preview control.
  • Instant reopening automatic diaphragm, closes to preselected "taking" aperture at instant of exposure: automatically reopens to full aperture.
  • Bayonet lens mount.
  • Self-resetting type exposure counter. Film winding by single stroke lever which also cocks the shutter and operates the exposure counter.
  • Rapid film rewinding crank which folds down when not in use.
  • Detachable camera back which is interchangeable with Motor Drive Back.
  • Fixed take-up spool.
  • Tripod socket in body casting
  • Accepts Model 3 Nikon exposure meter
  • ASA ratings from 6 to 4,000.

Nikon F Photomic-T

With exception of the following, all other specifications remain exactly the same as in Nikon F.

  • Interchangeable Photomic-T finder supplied as standard equipment.
  • Film speeds range from ASA 25 to 6,400.
  • Dimensions: 147mm x 103mm x 101mm with 50mm f/1.4 lens.
  • Weight: body without lens 830 g (1.8 lbs.), body with 50mm f/1.4 lens 1,155 g (2.5 lbs.).

Manufacturer description #3

The Nikon F is a 35 mm single lens reflex precision camera. It inherits numerous proven features of the Nikon S-series rangefinder model, and also incorporates abundant outstanding mechanisms and advantages which have been originated and developed for the most advanced single lens reflex. These unique features and functions originated by Nikon include:

Inherited from Nikon S-series rangefinder model:

  1. Crank-type film rewinding lever.
  2. Film advance lever enabling winding in a single sweep or several short strokes.
  3. Titanium foil shutter curtain.
  4. Shutter mechanism utilizing ball bearing and steel friction balls.
  5. Color-coded flash synchronization system.
  6. Synchronization terminal accepting cordless flash.
  7. Regular camera back that is interchangeable with Motor Drive back.

Specially originated for Nikon F:

  1. Interchangeable through-the-Iens meter/finder system.
  2. Depth of field preview control.
  3. Mirror lock-up.
  4. Interchangeable viewfinders and focusing screens.
  5. Exposure meter coupled to both shutter speed and diaphragm aperture through the meter coupling prong.
  6. Color-coded depth of field scale on Nikkor lenses.

The camera body is composed of 918 pieces. These parts are precisely designed, processed, finished and assembled and are subject to strict inspections to bring out the matchless performance of the Nikon F camera.

Manufacturer description #4

The new Photomic T brings 'thru-the-Nikkor' exposure control to the Nikon F, and provides the user with another logical choice of interchangeable finder systems.

'Thru-the-Nikkor' exposure control goes far beyond the idea of just another thru-the-lens meter system. By linking the performance of the Nikkor lenses with the performance of the new Photomic T, it brings as much assurance of picture quality as of exposure accuracy.

Affixed to the Nikon F, the Photomic T measures subject brightness directly from the viewing screen. It employs two CdS cells, located in the prism housing. They 'see' only the framed-in picture area on the screen.

Each cell is equipped with a 2-lens optical system which excludes light rays coming from any angle outside the picture area. Furthermore, the finder prism is 'black' coated to eliminate surface reflections. Every precaution has been taken to prevent extraneous light from reaching these cells and upsetting the accuracy of the readings.

The Photomic T is cross-coupled to the shutter and aperture rings, but its operation does not interfere with automatic diaphragm action. The lens remains wide open for viewing and focusing at all times. It only stops down when the shutter is released, and then instantly reopens. The meter needle is visible in the finder and in the meter window on the Photomic T housing.

Nikon F camera bodies now in use require some modification to permit interchanging present finders with the Photomic T.

Manufacturer description #5

2 thru the-lens meter systems:

* full-screen * narrow-angle

Such is the versatility of the Nikon F that it provides not one, but two interchangeable thru-the-lens meter systems: the Photomic T for full-area measurements and the new Photomic TN for narrow-angle readings.

The Photomic T measures the brightness of the entire scene as it appears on the viewing screen. Its angle of acceptance is the same as the lens in use.

The new Photomic TN permits selective brightness measurements of small areas of the scene, as represented by the image in the 12mm diameter center spot found on most Nikon F viewing screens. This acceptance angle is less than 1/3 that of the lens: about 13° with the 50mm lens; about 4° with 200mm tele, etc.

Both Photomic systems are cross-coupled for full-aperture operation, thus retaining all the advantages of automatic diaphragm lenses. Both also permit stop-down or shooting-aperture readings, where desired. And both handle film speeds from ASA 25 to 6400.

The meter needle, in each case, is visible in the finder as well as in the window on the prism housing. Both are identical in appearance, except for the battery test button on the Photomic TN. Initially, the Photomic TN will be supplied with Nikon F cameras only. It will be available separately later, for use on all cameras that accept the Photomic T.

Photomic T or Photomic TN, the choice is yours with the Nikon F. Or, you can use both interchangeably. You switch meters - not cameras. Isn't this what versatility is all about?

Manufacturer description #6

In 1965, the Photomic T brought thru-the-lens exposure control to the Nikon F. It was a unique system. It could be used with any Nikon, and it interchanged with all finders. It permitted wide-open readings with auto-diaphragm Nikkors as well as stop-down readings with non-automatic lenses, or when using extension tubes, bellows, etc.

Like most other meters, it averaged scene brightness. But while averaging meters are reliable in normal situations, they tend to introduce incorrect readings with backlighted scenes, or where subjects are contrasted against brilliant backgrounds. Something had to be done.

Nikon ruled out the spot method (used by some manufacturers) because selection of the target area to be measured is extremely critical. Choosing the wrong area will invariably produce incorrect exposure.

The idea of a built-in choice of spot or average readings would only add operating complications, without eliminating the objections. And this would be unacceptable in a camera which had gained much of its reputation for speed and ease of handling.

Early in 1967, Nikon introduced the Photomic TN, the self-compensating center-weighted system. While it measured the brightness of the entire screen, more than 60% of its response sensitivity was concentrated in the central subject area.

It was a totally new approach. And its practical ability to deal even with difficult light conditions became immediately evident The rest is history.

The new Photomic FTN is the next logical development. It makes full use of the center-weighted principle, the facility for wide-open and stop-down measurements, and all the other earlier features. In addition, it offers: automatic ASA/lens-aperture indexing, which eliminates the need to reset the film speed when interchanging lenses; extended film speed range (ASA 6 to 6400); intermediate settings to compensate for transmission differences in certain special viewfinder screens; visible shutter-speed setting in finder; 2-second and 4-second exposure readings where required; and "on/off" meter switch which also functions as battery test button. Another FTN innovation is the pincer-type clamp which secures it snugly to the camera body.

Initially, the Photomic FTN head will be supplied with cameras only. Its availability as an interchangeable accessory is anticipated early in 1969. The FTN was designed for use with any Nikon F. However, cameras bearing serial numbers below 6900001 will require some adaptation.

From the editor

The following versions of the Nikon F were offered:

  • Nikon F (1959) - a standard model with conventional pentaprism eye-level finder;
  • Nikon F Photomic (1962) - as F, but with interchangeable Photomic eye-level finder, combining a window meter and prism finder in one housing;
  • Nikon F Photomic T (1965) - as F, but with interchangeable Photomic-T eye-level finder with built-in TTL exposure meter;
  • Nikon F Photomic TN (1967) - as F, but with interchangeable Photomic-TN eye-level finder with built-in TTL exposure meter and center-weighted metering;
  • Nikon F Photomic FTN (1968) - as F, but with interchangeable Photomic-FTN eye-level finder with built-in TTL exposure meter and center-weighted metering. Shutter speeds displayed in the finder.

***

The weight and dimensions are indicated for the camera body with the Nikkor-S Auto 50mm F/1.4 lens mounted.

Similar cameras (4)

35mm full frame • Manual focus • Film • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kiev-17
aka Киев-17
M, 1/1000 -- M 1978
Kiev-19
aka Киев-19
M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1985
Kiev-19M
aka Киев-19М
M, 1/500 TTL • OA M 1988
Kiev-20
aka Киев-20
M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1983
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.