Nikon D4s

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:February 2014
System: Nikon F (1959)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Imaging sensor:36 × 23.9mm CMOS sensor
Resolution:4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor-shift image stabilization:-
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:1350g
Dimensions:160x156.5x90.5mm

Manufacturer description

TOKYO - Nikon Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the D4S, its latest flagship FX-format digital SLR camera.

Based on the D4, the D4S responds more completely to the demands of professional photographers with revisions to a number of features and functions, including AF performance, image quality, workflow and operation, and movie recording, adopted after running a variety of simulations of the functions required by professional photographers who sometimes find themselves working under quite severe conditions.

Algorithms used by the AF system have been refined for greater accuracy and versatility demanded by professional photographers. Autofocus is initiated faster and is better able to acquire and track the intended subject, whether it enters the frame suddenly or takes up the entire frame for a more powerful composition. In addition to the four time-tested modes available with the D4 (Single-point AF, Dynamic-area AF, 3D-tracking, and Auto-area AF), the D4S offers a fifth AF-area mode known as Group-area AF (uses 5 focus points: one specified by the user, as well as one each above, below, to the left, and to the right of the selected focus point). This mode enables not only smoother autofocusing, but also a faster workflow with continuous shooting at approximately 11 fps* with AF and AE tracking.

The new EXPEED 4 image-processing engine, a new Nikon FX-format CMOS image sensor, and an effective pixel count of 16.2-million pixels enable capture of images that exhibit stunning sharpness, enhanced depth, and natural skin tones. A range of standard sensitivities from ISO 100 to ISO 25600 achieves images exhibiting sharper edges and smoother, more beautiful colors. The D4S also supports extended sensitivities as low as the equivalent of ISO 50 and as high as the equivalent of ISO 409600. What's more, the accuracy of auto white balance has been increased for clear color reproduction, even with shooting under difficult artificial lighting.

A number of other improvements have been adopted without compromise in consideration of the advanced demands of professional photographers. Among these are improved viewfinder visibility with a more stable viewfinder image during continuous shooting and a shorter viewfinder blackout time, as well as smoother operation with less stress from a redesigned grip and refined layout of operational buttons and controls. Communication speed has also been increased with 1000BASE-T support for wired LAN communication, making extremely fast image transfer possible. A RAW S Small (12-bit uncompressed RAW) setting has also been added for faster post-capture editing on a computer.

The D4S supports movie recording at a frame size of 1920 x 1080 with a frame rate of 50p or 60p. EXPEED 4 enables rich tone reproduction, with very little noise, throughout the entire range of standard sensitivities (ISO 200-25600). Movies recorded at a 1920 x 1080 crop setting exhibit especially sharp and clear picture quality. Changes in exposure are also better controlled for smoother transition between frames with recording of scenes in which brightness changes greatly, even with time-lapse movies.

Development Background

Nikon's flagship D4 camera, released in February 2012, expanded possibilities for photographic expression for professional photographers primarily in the fields of sports, press, and nature photography. The D4 offered a number of features that not only responded to the demands of professional photographers, but also enabled capture of images of decisive moments that moved those who saw the images. Among these were excellent performance over a broad range of sensitivities for superior image quality under difficult lighting conditions, fast and accurate AF capable of capturing the intended subject, the Advanced Scene Recognition System, which provided more advanced automatic control that allowed photographers to concentrate more fully on shooting itself, and support for the superior rendering characteristics of NIKKOR lenses developed with optical technologies only Nikon can offer. Moreover, the D4 also contributed to cultivating new possibilities for imaging expression with the ability to express shallow depths of field and maximize the characteristics of excellent performance at high sensitivities with movie recording.

Developed as the next-generation flagship successor to the D4, D4S functions, features, and performance were thoroughly examined and analyzed from a variety of angles, resulting in a digital SLR camera that responds more completely to the demands of professional photographers. With this background, the D4S was developed to embody Nikon's response to the demands of professional photographers, upon which we place great importance, with functions and performance that support shooting in even the most difficult environments, and are able to respond to a variety of subjects and situations, as well as various lighting conditions.

D4S Primary Features

1. Advanced AF performance that responds to the strict demands of professional photographers

High-performance AF that more accurately acquires and tracks the intended subject, even under extreme conditions

Reflection of ideas from professional photographers and repeated simulation of various advanced techniques they often use has resulted in the very precise subject acquisition and tracking performance that these photographers require, and upon which they can rely, under the most extreme conditions. Very precise adjustment of AF algorithms based on the Advanced Multi-CAM 3500FX autofocus sensor module enables certain acquisition of even erratically moving subjects and those exhibiting little in the way of contrast. D4S autofocus performs even better, keeping the acquired subject in focus, even when it is coming closer, or moving away, at high speed. What's more, the D4S offers better balanced AF control with more precise focusing on the intended subject, and more accurate tracking of that subject, even when photographing team sports, such as soccer and rugby, when action may temporarily obstruct the intended subject.

5 AF-area modes for flexible focusing

In addition to the four time-tested modes built into the D4—Single-point AF, Dynamic-area AF (9-, 21-, 51-point), 3D-tracking, Auto-area AF—the D4S is equipped with a new Group-area AF AF-area mode for more powerful and versatile autofocusing. When Group-area AF is selected, the camera uses one focus point selected by the user and one each above, below, to the right, and to the left of the selected focus point, for a total of five focus points, for focusing. By capturing the subject within the five-point group, even if it is small and moving quickly and erratically as is often the case when photographing athletes and animals, the intended scene can be captured with greater certainty without focus shifting to the background.

In addition, an AF-area mode can be assigned to the AF activation button on super-telephoto NIKKOR lenses. When this is done, the specified AF-area mode is enabled while the AF activation button is held down. This enables strategic switching between the AF-area mode selected with the camera and a different AF-area mode assigned to the AF activation button, allowing users to switch back and forth between vital modes instantly, without ever taking their eye off the subject, when photographing a variety of scenes that change drastically. This allows users to better maximize AF performance between bursts of high-speed continuous shooting at approximately 11 fps* with AF and AE tracking.

Powerful AF with a variety of combinations of NIKKOR lenses and teleconverters

The D4S is equipped with 51 focus points capable of acquiring the intended subject throughout the frame. 15 cross-type focus points at the center of the frame use phase-detection AF to detect the subject horizontally and vertically, and as all 51 focus points support a maximum aperture of f/5.6, the performance of line sensors and cross-type sensors is fully utilized with all AF NIKKOR lenses. In addition, the 15 focus points (9 at the center of the frame, and three each to the left and right of these 9)*1 support maximum apertures faster than f/8, and 11 focus points (9 running horizontally at the center of the frame and 1 each above and below)*2 support maximum apertures of f/8. This results in stress-free focusing, even when using 1.4x or 1.7x teleconverters, and certain autofocusing capability when a 2.0x teleconverter is used with super-telephoto NIKKOR lenses for a combined maximum aperture of f/8.

2. Superior image quality with stunning sharpness and enhanced depth that responds more completely to the demands of professional photographers and supports the speed press photographers require

Beautiful image quality straight out of the camera

Press photographers working on-site demand not only certain capture of decisive moments, but also the ability to quickly transmit their photos as soon as they are taken. Understanding this need, the D4S captures JPEG images with stunning sharpness, enhanced depth, and natural skin tones that allows use of these images straight out of the camera. Less noise with shooting at high sensitivities and a range of standard sensitivities from ISO 100 to ISO 25600 enables images exhibiting sharper edges and smoother, more beautiful colors throughout the entire range (sensitivity can also be reduced to the equivalent of ISO 50 (Lo 1), or increased up to the equivalent of ISO 409600 (Hi 4) as shooting conditions demand). Images captured with the D4S also exhibit little significant loss in resolution, even when cropped for use in newspapers, magazines, or online. An effective pixel count of 16.2-million pixels, and the new EXPEED 4 image-processing engine and Nikon FX-format CMOS sensor, both developed by Nikon with meticulous research and repeated simulations, contribute greatly to these capabilities.

Accurate white balance for healthy skin tones and textures

Auto white balance achieves healthier, more vivid skin tones under a variety of lighting conditions. Adoption of a new image analysis system enables more accurate extraction and identification of white portions within the frame. In addition, as white balance can be fine-tuned in smaller steps than ever before, more precise settings can be specified. The D4S is also equipped with a spot white balance option that allows users to manually measure white balance data beforehand from even a very small white or gray portion of the frame. When the D4S is unable to accurately or satisfactorily measure preset white balance data, simply changing the area from which data is measured as many times as needed eliminates the need for repeating the process from the beginning. This helps to increase shooting efficiency for professional photographers who must work quickly when on-site.

3. Exclusive Nikon technologies and functions for more convenient and smoother workflow

A high-performance viewfinder with greater visibility achieved with suppression of viewfinder image shake during continuous shooting

Improvements to components such as the mirror bouncer with the D4S suppress shake caused by mirror bound movement for more stable display of the viewfinder image. Viewfinder visibility with continuous shooting has also been improved with a shorter viewfinder blackout time and continuous display of the active focus point, even when the shutter is released.

RAW S Small* (12-bit uncompressed) image size option

A new RAW S Small option that records images using 1/4 the number of pixels used for full-sized RAW images has been added. This makes editing images on a computer after they have been taken faster and more convenient (file size is approximately 1/2 that of 12-bit uncompressed RAW L Large images).

1000BASE-T support

The D4S is equipped with an Ethernet connector (compatible with the 1000BASE-T standard) that enables smooth transfer of high-quality image data, regardless of the format in which it was recorded (JPEG, NEF, TIFF), after capture.

LCD monitor with function for customizing colors

The D4S is equipped with a 3.2-inch, approximately 921k-dot wide viewing angle TFT LCD monitor with which the protective glass and LCD panel have been integrated to suppress internal reflections. Display characteristics have been carefully adjusted for more faithful color reproduction. In addition, the camera is equipped with a function that allows users to customize colors to suit their individual preferences.

A form and layout for operational controls that make the camera easier to hold and operate

The shape of the grip has been optimized to make holding the camera more comfortable, even for those with small hands. What's more, thorough examination of the shape of the rear of the camera, and design and materials used for the sub-selector have resulted in a camera that offers a better hold and more reliable operation.

4. D-Movie function for recording full-HD 1920 x 1080 60p/50p movies

Movies recorded at a frame rate of 60p exhibit smooth subject movement and changes in exposure, even when the brightness of the scene changes greatly. Noise is effectively suppressed throughout the full range of standard sensitivities (ISO 200-25600) for rich expression of tones and stunning sharpness that preserves details. The D4S offers selection from three image area* options that respond to imaging intent—FX-based movie format, DX-based movie format, and 1920 x 1080 crop. With recording at a setting of 1920 x 1080 crop, 1920 x 1080p full-HD movies are generated without resizing for stunningly sharp movies rich in detail.

In addition, uncompressed movies can be recorded directly to an external HDMI device connected to the camera's HDMI connector in movie live view mode. A dedicated HDMI cable clip is supplied with the D4S. When used with the optional HC-E1 HDMI cable, this clip prevents accidental disconnection of the HDMI cable from the camera. In addition, movie recording with the D4S is even more convenient as movies can be recorded to an external HDMI device and a memory card inserted in the camera at the same time.

The D4S responds to demands for movie recording with a variety of other capabilities as well, including the ability to change the image area in movie live view, and to enable Auto ISO Control for automatic adjustment of ISO sensitivity at a fixed shutter speed and aperture value.

The D4S also offers a new exposure smoothing function for time-lapse movie recording. This function smooths exposure between frames for less flicker in resulting movies.

Similar cameras (2)

35mm full frame • Auto focus • Digital • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kodak DCS Pro 14n E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2002
Kodak DCS Pro SLR/n E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2004
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.