Nikon D780

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:January 2020
System: Nikon F (1959)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Imaging sensor:35.9 × 23.9mm CMOS sensor
Resolution:6048 × 4024 - 24 MP
Sensor-shift image stabilization:-
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:900 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:840g
Dimensions:143.5x115.5x76mm

Manufacturer description

TOKYO - Nikon Corporation (Nikon) is pleased to announce the release of the Nikon D780, a Nikon FX-format digital SLR camera.

Succeeding the Nikon D750 (released in September 2014), the D780 is a high-performance digital SLR featuring a number of superior functions inherited from professional models, starting with its advanced autofocusing (AF) system for which 51 focus points have been adopted for viewfinder shooting. Additionally, the D780 is Nikon's first digital SLR employing the hybrid AF system for live view mode used by Nikon Z series cameras. This further demonstrates the next step up in AF performance with both viewfinder and live view shooting.

The 51-point AF system utilized with viewfinder shooting, that uses phase-detection AF technology, inherits the AF algorithm from Nikon's flagship D-SLR model — the D5 (released in March 2016). The algorithm, together with other innovations, is optimized for the D780 to achieve greater subject detection and tracking performance. The D780 is also the first Nikon digital SLR to utilize focal-plane phase-detection AF. The hybrid AF system, which automatically switches between focal-plane phase-detection AF and contrast-detect AF in accordance with the situation and conditions, covers approximately 90% of the frame when used with live view photography and movie recording. This applies both horizontally and vertically, with 273*1 focus points. In addition to demonstrating smooth and precise tracking performance while movie recording, the hybrid AF system supports Eye-detection AF*2, which automatically detects human eyes with still photography, greatly increasing flexibility with portrait photography. The D780 makes smooth and natural autofocusing possible with a wide variety of scenes — whether using the viewfinder or the monitor to frame stills and movies.

The camera features an effective pixel count of 24.5 million pixels, and utilizes a backside illumination CMOS sensor that is itself equipped with focal-plane phase-detection AF pixels. This, used in combination with the EXPEED 6 image-processing engine, realizes excellent high-sensitivity performance at the maximum standard sensitivity setting of ISO 51200. Even at higher sensitivity settings, noise is effectively reduced to preserve sharp and clear images. The D780 also supports recording of 4K UHD movies with high dynamic range utilizing the HDR (Hybrid Log-Gamma) standard. Shutter speeds of 1/8000 s to a minimum of 900 s (15 min.)*3 can be specified. In addition, the camera's buffer has been expanded to enable capture of approximately four times as many shots in 14-bit lossless compressed RAW (up to approx. 68*4) with a single burst of high-speed continuous shooting at approximately 7 fps*5 as was possible with the D750.

The D780 is a camera that will inspire those looking to demonstrate their creativity in a variety of ways to be even more creative through the great diversity in its capabilities — from the ability to photograph rapidly moving subjects, to portrait photography utilizing Eye-detection AF, and recording of HDR (HLG) movies that exhibit rich tones and gradations.

Primary Features

1. Improved AF performance that supports a wide variety of scenes

A 51-point AF system that captures the intended subject with great accuracy and precision

The AF system has been greatly improved since the D750, especially when it comes to autofocusing performance with viewfinder shooting. The powerful calculation capability realized by the EXPEED 6 image-processing engine, as well as the detailed subject information acquired by the Advanced Scene Recognition System and upgraded 180K-pixel RGB sensors contribute to enhanced subject tracking in 3D-tracking mode. In combination with the AF algorithm adapted from the D5, these technologies also contribute to improved subject detection in the auto-area mode, enabling the capture of intended subjects with even greater accuracy.

A 273-point hybrid AF system that utilizes focal-plane phase-detection AF and supports Eye-detection AF

The D780 is the first Nikon digital SLR for which focal-plane phase-detection AF has been adopted. This represents a tremendous evolution in AF performance with live view photography and movie recording. The hybrid AF system, which automatically switches between focal-plane phase-detection AF and contrast-detect AF in accordance with the situation and conditions, covers approximately 90% of the frame, both horizontally and vertically, with 273 focus points. This makes it easy for the camera to focus on subjects at the edges of the frame. The D780 also supports Eye-detection AF, with which the camera accurately recognizes human eyes even when the person is moving, when using the live view photography in auto-area AF mode. This ensures certain focus on the subject's eyes with portraits and the like, allowing the photographer to comfortably concentrate on framing their images. What's more, AF speed* and AF tracking sensitivity with movie recording can be adjusted, enabling smooth autofocusing in accordance with the creative intention.

*AF speed cannot be adjusted when certain lenses are used.

2. High-quality stills and movies exhibiting superior high-sensitivity performance with very little noise

An effective pixel count of 24.5 million pixels and a backside illumination CMOS sensor, itself equipped with focal-plane phase-detection AF pixels, have been adopted for the D780. This, in combination with adoption of the EXPEED 6 image-processing engine, realizes excellent high-sensitivity performance at the maximum standard sensitivity setting of ISO 51200* with optimal balance between preserving sharpness and clarity, while effectively reducing noise, even at high sensitivities. The camera is also capable of recording not only full-frame 4K UHD/30p movies, but also full-HD/120p movies. Further, high dynamic range (HDR) movies can be recorded using the hybrid log-gamma (HLG) standard during 10-bit HDMI output, producing beautiful video with rich tones and gradations that faithfully reproduce every detail in high-contrast scenes, all without post-recording color grading.

*ISO sensitivity can be expanded down to the equivalent of ISO 50 and up to the equivalent of ISO 204800.

3. Performance and functions that support diverse imaging expression

The D780 supports high-speed continuous shooting at up to approximately 7 fps with both viewfinder shooting and live view photography. Expansion of the camera's memory buffer enables capture of approximately four times as many shots (up to approx. 68) with a single burst of high-speed continuous shooting of large,14-bit lossless compressed RAW files as was possible with the D750, ensuring that users never miss a photo opportunity. What's more, a broad range of shutter speeds, from the fastest at 1/8000 s to the longest at 900 s, is available. In addition to effectively capturing rapidly moving subjects, combining the 1/8000 s maximum shutter speed with the maximum apertures provided by fast lenses enables capture of stunning portraits, even under extremely bright, sunlit conditions. The slowest shutter speed setting available — 900 s — is perfect for astrophotography and other long time-exposures.

The D780 is also equipped with movie-recording functions that respond extremely well to user needs, including a function for automatically recording slow-motion movies at 4x or 5x the normal recording speed, as well as Nikon's exclusive N-Log* option for use with 10-bit HDMI output.

*Footage is recorded only to the external device; it cannot be recorded to the memory card inserted in the camera.

4. Superior reliability and operability that make the camera effective with a broader range of photographic scenes

The camera body has a monocoque structure with which a magnesium alloy has been adopted for the top and rear covers, ensuring superior rigidity and durability with a lighter weight. Each part of the camera has been effectively sealed for reliable dust and drip resistance. Operation has also been improved with careful consideration of button and control positioning and a grip that ensures a firm and steady hold.

A power-saving design enables capture of approximately 2,260 frames (measured in accordance with CIPA standard) on a single charge, providing worry-free shooting over an extended period of time. In addition, a 3.2-in., 2,359k-dot LCD touch screen has been adopted for the tilting monitor equivalent to that used by the Nikon D850 (released in September 2017), enabling diverse touch operation. The D780 responds to a variety of scenes and conditions with superior reliability and operability that realize comfortable and intuitive shooting.

5.Additional features

  • Improved AF fine-tune for greater focus accuracy when zoom lenses are used
  • An electronic shutter that enables silent photography with no shutter sounds or mechanical blur
  • Active D-Lighting, electronic vibration reduction, and focus peaking can be used with 4K UHD movie recording
  • In-camera, automatic time-lapse movie production in the interval-timer photography mode allows users to view the resulting movie immediately after shooting
  • High-speed Frame Capture*1 of 2-megapixel images at up to 120 fps (when Full-HD movie recording selected) and 8-megapixel images at up to 30 fps (when 4K-UHD movie recording selected), both with AF/AE tracking
  • Dual SD card slots that support simultaneous deletion of original and backup images
  • Support for the next evolution of the SnapBridge app; Ver. 2.6 enables the transfer of RAW images to a smart device*2, filtering settings, and remote camera operation over a Bluetooth® connection
  • A negative digitizer that makes it easy to convert color or black-and-white film negatives (35mm [135]) to digital data (JPEG) using the ES-2 Film Digitizing Adapter (optional)

Similar cameras (2)

35mm full frame • Auto focus • Digital • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kodak DCS Pro 14n E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2002
Kodak DCS Pro SLR/n E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2004
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.