Nikkormat FT3

35mm MF film SLR camera


Production details:
System: Nikon F (1959)
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Speeds:1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Manual
Physical characteristics:

Manufacturer description #1

Nikkormat single-lens-reflex cameras are built to Nikon standards of advanced technology and rugged precision. Moderately priced, they offer economical entry into the Nikon system. They accept all interchangeable Nikkor lenses and most Nikon accessories. Features common to all current Nikkormat models include:

  • Center-Weighted Through-the-Lens CdS Metering with more than 55 Nikkor lenses.
  • Rugged All Metal, Vertical-Travel, Focal Plane Shutter with speeds to 1/1000th second.
  • Full Flash Capability with "X" synch to 1/125th second, "M" synch to 1/1000th; built-in hot shoe and PC outlet; special flash safety features.
  • Large, Bright Viewfinder shows comprehensive exposure information including shutter speeds, meter needle and reference markers.
  • Fast, Easy Operation to capture every photographic opportunity.

There are two basic series of Nikkormat cameras. The Nikkormat FT3 provides the convenience and accuracy of automatic maximum aperture indexing and full-aperture metering with all AI-Nikkor lenses, from 6mm to 600mm. (Note: Most previous Auto-Nikkors can be converted for AI operation.) Other models in the Nikkormat family (including the FT2, EL, and ELW) are designed for manual aperture indexing as the lens is attached and provide full-aperture metering with all Nikkor lenses with meter-coupling shoe (including all AI-Nikkor lenses).

Nikkormat FT2 and FT3 feature accurate, through-the-Iens, match-needle metering, controlled by simply adjusting the lens aperture or shutter speed. Their rugged metal shutters provide speeds from 1 to 1/1000th second plus "B." While the most economical of Nikon-system cameras, these models are so reliable and versatile that many are owned by professional photographers.

Nikon quality and design ingenuity are evident in all Nikkormat cameras. All share the Nikon center-weighted meter system, acknowledged to be the most reliable in the vast majority of photographic situations. The meter switch is activated by the film transport lever - also a Nikon innovation - for added speed and convenience. Bright, comfortable viewing and pin-point focusing are assured by the famous Nikon Type K finder screen with 3-way focus check: central split-image rangefinder, surrounding microprism collar, and overall matte Fresnel field. A special control system holds the film truly flat during exposure for sharpest possible images.

Manufacturer description #2

Nikkormat FT3 is an easy-handling precision camera that combines fast, uncomplicated operation with a full complement of built-in features, ruggedly reliable performance, and versatility far beyond its economical price. Ideal for any beginning SLR photographer, the FT3 also meets the needs of advanced hobbyists and even professionals - by itself or as an inexpensive extra body for anyone's personal Nikon system.

Constantly Picture-Ready

The FT3 is designed to permit all picture-taking operations with the camera held at eye-level. Focusing, lens aperture and shutter adjustments are quickly made with the left hand; film advance and shutter release (also depth·of-field preview, when desired) with the right.

Center-Weighted Meter System

Designed by Nikon and acknowledged as the most consistently accurate for through-the-lens exposure control. Two sensitive CdS cells observe the entire picture area but derive more than half of their exposure information from the central 12mm·diameter area, where the main subject is usually located. This helps compensate for overly bright or dark back grounds and, in most situations, provides accurate exposure with a single reading. The "weighted" area is precisely and uniformly centered in every FT3 camera, and readings are equally reliable whether the camera is held in horizontal or vertical position. The meter switch is activated by the film advance lever.

Automatic Maximum Aperture Indexing (AI)

With AI-Nikkor lenses, the FT3 meter is programmed automatically as the lens is attached to the camera with a quarter-turn. The photographer is then immediately ready for full-aperture metering. AI-Nikkors thus are instantly interchangeable. Stop-down metering, equally accurate, is provided with all other reflex-viewing lenses and other image-forming attachments. (Most earlier Auto-Nikkors can be converted for AI operation.)

Exposure Check Through The Finder

Correct exposure is indicated when meter needle is centered in bracket visible in the finder. Minus and plus markings indicate under and over-exposure settings. Selected shutter speed appears at bottom of finder, flanked by next higher and lower speeds.

...And From Above

Meter needle along with plus and minus markers is seen also in window on top of camera; helpful when camera is in low-level position, held overhead (upside down), or for closeup applications.

Nikon "K" Finder Screen

Combines optimum brightness and focusing ease. For quick, positive focus, you can use the central split-image rangefinder, the surrounding microprism collar, or any part of the entire finder area. Fresnel-type screen is evenly bright to edges, with no sacrifice in focusing accuracy. Circular outline shows "weighted" metering area. Eyepiece accepts all Nikon system screw-on finder accessories.

High-Speed Flash Synch

FT3 vertical-travel metal shutter (1 second to 1/1000th plus "B") provides electronic flash synch to 1/125th, reducing risk of "ghost" images that might be caused by bright, existing light at slower speeds; also synchs with "M" bulbs to 1/1000th sec. No synch adjustment is required for different types of flash.

Hot Shoe Plus PC Terminal

Shoe accepts Nikon and other flash units with standard cordless synch contact. Safety switch automatically turns shoe contact off when unit is removed, so there's no risk of annoying shock. For cord-type units and for off-camera flash, there is a single standard terminal, threaded for slip-proof Nikon screw-in cords (also accepts other PC cords).

Multi-Function Advance Lever

The plastic tip-cushioned lever (derived from the Nikon space cameras) advances the film, cocks the shutter and counts the exposures with a short 135 deg. sweep. It also switches the meter system on, at the 20 deg. stand-off position, and off when returned flush with the camera.

Special Film Flattening System

Nikon design goes to extreme lengths to assure maximum film flatness for sharpest possible pictures with the FT3: (1) stabilizer prevents film cartridge from wobbling; (2) film travels on extra-long, precision-ground, tecessed rails, (3) is held flat by over-size, polished pressure plate, aided by (4) special "anti-bellying" roller, and finally (5) winds onto fixed takeup spool emulsion-side out, further counteracting its natural "curl". Hinged back is structurally rigid and locks securely with a double catch.

Depth-Of-Field Preview

Permits checking pictorial effect at selected shooting aperture at touch of a button.


Releases shutter automatically after approximately 10-second delay.

Nikkormat FT3 is supplied in satin chrome (Product No. 1832) or professional black finish (Product No. 1837).

Manufacturer description #3

CAMERA TYPE: 35mm SLR with through-the-Iens CdS metering and interchangeable lenses.

LENSMOUNT: Stainless-steel Nikon bayonet accepts all Nikkor lenses 6mm-2000mm and all Nikon-mount accessories. Flange/film distance 46.5mm, Automatic diaphragm coupling.

EXPOSURE CONTROL: Through-the-Iens, match-needle readout with aperture or shutter priority.

METER SYSTEM: CdS cells concentrate 60% of sensitivity on central 12mm area shown by circle in finder; operates at full aperture with all AI-Nikkor lenses; stopdown measurement with non-AI lenses, attachments, or instruments. Automatic maximum aperture indexing with all AI-Nikkor lenses.

METER RANGES: ASA 12-1600; EV 3 to 17 (with ASA 100 film and f1.4 lens). Full-aperture coupling range: f1.2-f32.

SHUTTER: All-metal vertical-travel focal plane; speeds "B", 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1000th second.

FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION: "X" synch at "B" to -1/125th second; "M" synch at "B", 1-1/30th, 1/250-1/1000th second; automatic synch adjustment as shutter speed is set.

FLASH CONTACTS: Built-in hot shoe with automatic safety switch; single PC outlet accepts Nikon screw-on or conventional PC cords.

VIEWFINDER: Built-in pentaprism finder with -1.0 diopter correction; information display includes meter needle, under/over exposure indicators, shutter speed in use, and adjacent higher and lower speeds. Needle on camera top permits exposure check from above.

FOCUSING SCREEN: Fixed Nikon Type K screen with 3mm-diameter split-image rangefinder, 1mm microprism circle plus overall matte Fresnel area; large circle shows center-weighted measurement area.

REFLEX MIRROR: Oversize instant-return type with independent locking control.

FILM LOADING: Multi-slotted take-up spool, hinged back and additive automatic-reset exposure counter for fast loading.

FILM TRANSPORT: Single-stroke lever advances film, winds shutter, switches meter on, and counts exposures in 135 deg. action; may be left at "ready" position 20 deg. from camera body to activate meter; when folded flush, lever turns meter off.

FILM REWIND: Rewind-release button on camera baseplate; fold-out rewind crank pulls up to open camera back.

BATTERY TYPE: Two 1.5v silver oxide batteries (Eveready S76 or equivalent) power meter.

OTHER FEATURES: Depth-of-field preview; stainless-steel reinforced neckstrap eyelets; built-in self timer with variable delay to approximately 10 seconds.

Similar cameras (4)

35mm full frame • Manual focus • Film • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kiev-17 M, 1/1000 -- M 1978
Kiev-19 M, 1/500 TTL • WA M 1985
Kiev-19M M, 1/500 TTL • OA M 1988
Kiev-20 M, 1/1000 TTL • OA M 1983
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.


Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.


Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.


Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.


Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.


Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.


Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.


Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.


Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.


A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.


The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.


Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),


CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.


A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.


The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.


Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.


Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.


Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.