Canon EOS 1D mark IV

APS-H AF digital SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:October 2009
System: Canon EOS (1987)
Format:
Maximum format:APS-H
Imaging sensor:27.9 × 18.6mm CMOS sensor
Resolution:4896 × 3264 - 16 MP
Crop factor:1.29x
Sensor-shift image stabilization:-
Mount and Flange focal distance:Canon EF [44mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:1180g
Dimensions:156x156.6x79.9mm

Manufacturer description #1

The Canon EOS-1D Mark IV features a newly developed 16.1-megapixel APS-H size (27.9 x 18.6 mm) CMOS sensor and Dual DIGIC 4, comprising two high-performance DIGIC 4 image processors, making possible an expanded normal ISO sensitivity* range of 100-12,800 for beautiful image quality with low noise at all settings. The camera also allows an extended ISO range of 50-102,400. Low-sensitivity settings support outstanding results for outdoor portrait-photo shoots under bright lighting conditions or when using large strobe lights in a studio environment, while high-sensitivity settings boost performance when shooting indoor sports action and night games or conducting nighttime photojournalism. The camera makes possible a continuous shooting speed of up to approximately 10 frames per second for up to approximately 121 large JPEG images in a single burst.

The EOS-1D Mark IV’s newly developed 45-point AF (autofocus) sensor, including 39 cross-type AF points with sensitivity up to f/2.8, ensures greatly improved focusing accuracy. Equipped with AI Servo AF II, incorporating a new algorithm, the camera achieves high levels of AF stability and tracking performance.

Manufacturer description #2

London, 20 October 2009 – Canon today announces the launch of the new EOS-1D Mark IV – a high-speed, professional Digital SLR (DSLR) camera designed to empower photographers to capture split-second moments in high resolution, under the most challenging of conditions. Ideal for shooting action, sports, news events and wildlife photography, the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV delivers speed, power and high-resolution images, creating the perfect camera for photographers who require reliability in fast-paced, high-pressure situations.

Developed incorporating feedback from professional photographers, the EOS-1D Mark IV features a new Canon 16.1MP APS-H CMOS sensor and a brand new 45-point Auto Focus (AF) system with 39 f/2.8 sensitive cross-type points, providing a wide selection of precise focus areas across the frame. Dual “DIGIC 4” processors provide the power to shoot continuous, high-resolution images at up to 10 frames per second (fps), as well as delivering the widest ISO range ever to feature in a Canon camera.

“Throughout the EOS-1D Mark IV’s development, we’ve carefully studied feedback from our photographers and developed a camera to meet their specific requirements” said Mr. Shinbori, Senior General Manager of Camera Development Center, Canon Inc. “With a brand new, high-quality CMOS sensor and Dual “DIGIC 4” processors, the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV allows photographers to be the first to get the highest quality images to picture desks in what is becoming an increasingly competitive market.”

Highly sensitive, cross-type focusing – capture every detail at speed

The Canon EOS-1D Mark IV features a completely new 45-point AF system, with 39 f/2.8 sensitive cross-type points located across the frame, providing consistent AF on static or moving subjects, no matter which AF point is being used. All 45 AF points are user selectable and now more sensitive, with the AF points towards the edge of the frame offering identical levels of performance to those in the centre.

The entire AF system is managed by a dedicated microprocessor, providing fast, accurate focusing – even when shooting continuously at 10fps. Canon’s newly-evolved AI Servo II AF offers more precision when tracking moving objects, utilising the power provided by the dedicated microprocessor to improve overall tracking accuracy and increasing focus reliability in low-contrast and extremely bright conditions.

To provide increased flexibility, a vast range of manual and automatic AF control options are available including - with lenses featuring an AF Stop button - Canon’s new Spot AF feature. Spot AF offers a more precise focus area to meet the needs of photographers that require pinpoint focusing. A 63-zone metering system enables the use of multiple metering modes, with the dedicated sensor linked to the 45 AF points, providing AF point-linked and multiple spot metering options.

The EOS-1D Mark IV also features orientation-linked AF points, an orientation sensor controlled feature that enables photographers to store separate AF points for different camera positions. Covering both horizontal and vertical shooting positions (both grip up and grip down), orientation linked AF points offers the flexibility to quickly change camera orientation when shooting with the AF settings switching to suit the subject. AF point registration enables the photographer to store an alternate AF point that can be used at the touch of a button.

The power and performance of Dual “DIGIC 4” and CMOS

The combination of a custom-designed, high resolution 16.1MP APS-H CMOS sensor and Dual “DIGIC 4” processors ensures that detailed, crisp images are delivered at high speeds.

The inclusion of an APS-H sensor combines a high pixel-count with an effective field of view measuring 1.3x the focal length of the lens. This provides immediate benefits for sports, news and wildlife photojournalists, who operate on-the-move and need to get closer to their subjects and maintain fast apertures without resorting to longer focal-length lenses – which are typically heavier.

Continuous shooting is facilitated by the sensor’s eight-channel data read out, which provides a rapid read sequence and makes full use of the Dual “DIGIC 4” processors to enable high-speed 10fps shooting at full 16.1MP resolution, while maintaining image colours through 14-bit analogue to digital (A/D) conversion.

The ability to shoot images at 10fps, without any drop in resolution, means the EOS-1D Mark IV features the fastest continuous shooting with Auto Focus currently available from a Canon DSLR. The increased processing capacity of Dual “DIGIC 4” processors manages the increased data created by the 60% rise in image resolution, while still enabling the EOS-1D Mark IV to deliver a continuous burst of up to 121 large JPEGS, or 28 RAW images using a UDMA 6 card – ideal for fast-moving sporting action or news events where scenes are unfolding quickly.

The EOS-1D Mark IV also includes updated Picture Styles and the first ever integration of ALO (Auto Lighting Optimizer) in a professional EOS body, automatically correcting the contrast and brightness of images as they are recorded. These features combine to provide a faster workflow for those requiring press-ready images direct from the camera without the need for retouching, enabling photographers to concentrate solely on capturing that once-in-a-lifetime shot.

Full compatibility with the latest UDMA 6 standard Flash memory cards also ensures that image data is rapidly written to the EOS-1D Mark IV’s CF memory card. In addition, the flexibility to also record to a Secure Digital/SDHC memory card allows photographers to keep shooting for longer until they get the shot they need.

Advanced performance in low-light

The EOS-1D Mark IV also delivers extreme low-light performance. Standard ISO on the EOS-1D Mark IV ranges from 100-12,800, while extended ISO ranges from a low of 50 to 102,400 – the highest ISO ever offered by a Canon SLR. This extreme low-light performance makes the EOS-1D Mark IV ideal for night shots or shooting at evening events, where the lack of light would normally make shooting impossible.

Intelligent noise reduction techniques keep chroma and luminance noise to a minimum, while maintaining colour balance, but never take control of the overall image quality away from the photographer. The architecture of the new 16.1MP APS-H CMOS sensor, featuring gapless microlenses with less surrounding circuitry and more sensitive, high-capacity photodiodes, also ensures that all available light is used as efficiently as possible to maximise ISO performance in low light conditions.

Built for extreme use – robust, weatherproof and portable

Light for its category, the EOS-1D Mark IV features a full magnesium alloy body, providing protection against knocks and bumps. The EOS-1D Mark IV has also been the subject of some subtle ergonomic redesigns, with the buttons reshaped and given a more defined ‘click’ when pressed, to make life easier for photographers operating in more extreme weather conditions where gloves may be necessary.

The EOS-1D Mark IV is protected by a total of 76 rubber seals fitted around the controls and cover seams, making the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV dust and water resistant when used in tandem with Canon’s range of weather-resistant EF lenses and Speedlite EX flash units.

The 920,000 dot, VGA resolution, Clear View II LCD makes it easy to instantly review images and video in the most challenging conditions. By filling the gap between the LCD panel and the protective cover screen with a photo-elastic material, Canon has been able to reduce light reflection, resulting in the clear display of images. The previously acrylic cover has also been replaced by reinforced glass, providing strong, scratch-resistant protection for the screen.

The EOS-1D Mark IV also features the EOS integrated cleaning system, which automatically eliminates dust on the sensor – ensuring reliable image quality when shooting in testing outdoor environments.

Cinematic, High Definition video

In addition to providing high-quality still image performance, the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV features EOS Movie function, providing the ability to capture 1080p High Definition (HD) video at 30, 25 and 24fps and 720p footage at 60 and 50fps. As well as complete compatibility with PAL, NTSC and native 1080/24p cinematic frame rates, the EOS-1D Mark IV offers full manual exposure, providing film makers and photographers with control over depth of field.

The EOS-1D Mark IV features a programmable button to enable quick movie shooting, allowing photographers to record HD video instantly at the touch of a single button. The EOS-1D Mark IV also features a mini HDMI output, enabling video and images to be viewed directly on compatible HD-ready TVs.

Advanced customisation to suit you.

Canon’s EOS-1D Mark IV is highly customisable, allowing photographers to take complete control of the camera’s features. Auto Exposure (AE) and Flash Exposure (FE) micro-adjustments allow photographers to fine tune the exposure for any given purpose, enabling them to perfectly match two separate cameras for consistent results or simply adjust the settings to meet specific personal requirements and tastes. Preferred user profiles can also be stored to memory card and subsequently transferred to other EOS-1D Mark IV bodies, so that photographers can seamlessly transfer their profile to another body if required.

Further customisable features include the ability to add copyright information directly in the camera. This enables photographers to embed their details within each shot as standard, removing the need for retrospective data insertion, and allowing news photographers to get shots to picture desks in the shortest time possible. An integrated microphone also allows the recording of audio notes to accompany each image, which will directly benefit photographers who wish to keep a record of the content of each image as they shoot.

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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.