Nikon D2X

APS-C AF digital SLR camera

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Specification

Production details:
Announced:September 2004
System: Nikon F APS-C (1999)
Format:
Maximum format:APS-C
Imaging sensor:23.7 × 15.7mm CMOS sensor
Resolution:4288 × 2848 - 12 MP
Crop factor:1.52x
Sensor-shift image stabilization:-
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:1070g
Dimensions:157.5x149.5x85.5mm

Manufacturer description

MELVILLE, NY, SEPTEMBER XX, 2004 – Nikon®, the world leader in photography, today announced the new D2X™ professional digital SLR camera. Designed as a truly versatile workhorse camera for many professional disciplines, the D2X blends for the first time the high levels of resolution commercial clients demand with superb image quality, color consistency and class-leading speed. The D2X delivers high image quality using brand new innovations that produce ultra sharp images with very fine gradations and smooth color transitions across the color range – all while maintaining impeccable color accuracy, even when shooting under rapidly changing light. High resolution is achieved by an all-new 12.4 million pixel DX Format CMOS image sensor and a new image processing engine that works seamlessly with optimized systems throughout the camera. Even with this tremendous resolution, the D2X can comfortably shoot full resolution images at 5 frames per second (up to 21 consecutive JPEGS and 15 NEFs). When the situation demands yet faster frame rates, the D2X has a unique 6.8 megapixel ‘High Speed Cropped Image’ mode that boosts the shooting rate to 8 frames per second, up to 35 consecutive JPEGs or 26 NEF images, by cropping the number of pixels used on the sensor to create the image.

The D2X proves to be the only digital SLR camera truly equipped to meet the changing landscape of professional photography. Not only does it successfully combine high resolution, speed and quality, but it also introduces exclusive technologies that promise to expand the realm of digital photography. Options such as the newly introduced WT-2A Wi-Fi transmitter achieves full wireless remote camera control and transmission, while the revolutionary i-TTL Speedlight technology included in the D2X ensures radical new possibilities in creative lighting.

“Today’s working professional photographers have to be more versatile than ever, and with the introduction of the D2X Nikon now offers pro photographers the highest levels of quality, features and resolution to respond to their ever-changing needs,” said Jerry Grossman, vice president, marketing for Nikon inc. “While the 12.4 megapixel resolution of the D2X addresses a critical issue for photographers, other features such as improved color resolution, the high speed crop mode and affordability make the D2X the most versatile and powerful camera available for professionals.”

Unparalleled Image Quality

With an all new, high performance 12.4 megapixel DX Format CMOS sensor, the D2X delivers the high resolution and sharp detail needed for professional results. However, a high resolution sensor is only part of the equation in delivering the ultimate image quality. The D2X employs Nikon’s new generation system LSI that greatly improves the precision of processing during the analog/digital conversion. After digital conversion, a new processing method has been added to increase image-processing precision in the ASIC for smoother display of tones from highlight portions to shadow portions of the image. With optimized distribution of analog and digital white balance gain, the new engine produces smoother gradations with consistent and smooth transitions, all with exceptionally pure color rendition.

In addition to two new Adobe RGB color modes that further expand professional color space options with the new engine, the D2X also supports the sYCC color profile found in many of the latest printers. With sYCC support, photographers can produces JPEG files with a gamut wider than sRGB and fully exploit the output capabilities of their latest color printers.

An improved metering system in the D2X, called 3D-Color Matrix Metering II, allows Nikon’s acclaimed 1,005-pixel RGB Exposure/Color Matrix Metering Sensor to better determine the position and size of shadow or highlight areas and achieve optimum exposure for each shot.

Unparalleled Speed

Professionals need their cameras to be as fast as they are. Therefore, similar to the blazing fast D2H, the D2X adopts a holistic approach to speed. The camera is ready to shoot the instant it is turned on and has an almost imperceptible 37ms shutter lag time, an astounding achievement at this resolution level. Using a new high-speed 4-channel output method, and improved speed of transferring image data from the image sensor to a memory card, the D2X is capable of shooting 5 frames per second at full 12.4 megapixel resolution for up to 21 JPEGs or 15 NEFs. The camera’s unique High Speed Cropped Image mode allows photographers to achieve an even higher continuous shooting rate of 8 frames per second by using a dual area sensor that records only 6.8 million pixels in the center of the sensor. While photographers are satisfied with 5 frames per second for most applications, this new mode gives them the duality of having the option to shoot at faster framing rates for specific situations, within one camera body.

The D2X also boasts Nikon’s acclaimed Mutli-CAM2000 high-speed AF system that features eleven autofocus sensors of which nine are cross type and placed in the rule of thirds layout.

Unparalleled Design and Ergonomics

The D2X is consistent with the D2H in terms of body design, ergonomics and interface. The camera’s large controls and buttons are positioned for intuitive control that frees the photographer to concentrate on the composition. Regardless of the camera’s orientation, operation remains consistently comfortable and with virtually the same access to primary controls. The D2X features an improved energy efficient design that when combined with its unrivaled lithium-ion battery system, delivers extended longevity and high energy capacity capable of approx. 2,000 shots per charge, with accurate real-time system status displays. A new 2.5-inch, 235,000 pixel high resolution LCD monitor features an all-digital interface for clear, flicker-free display of preview images and logically organized Shooting, Playback, Set-up and Custom Settings menus. On-demand information includes an improved histogram and new RGB Histogram displays, as well as a chronological ‘History Menu’ that lists recently accessed settings.

Unparalleled System Innovations

Nikon’s Total Imaging System is unrivaled in innovation and offers photographers the most cutting edge new technologies and features to incorporate in their workflow. Outlined below are groundbreaking technologies that enable photographers to achieve results not possible with any other system:

New Wireless Transmitter WT-2A

Nikon’s Wireless Transmitter WT-1A for the D2H opened new roads in digital SLR photography by making it possible to transmit images directly from the camera over a wireless LAN. Now, the new Wireless Transmitter WT-2A will open the floodgates of creativity for photographers by allowing them to not only transmit images over a Wi-Fi network, but also allow wireless remote control of the D2X over a Wi-Fi network from a computer running Capture 4.2 software. Photographers can set the D2X in places that may be inaccessible or unsuitable for photographers, and wirelessly adjust settings, trigger the camera, and instantly retrieve the images over a LAN. The applications of this technology are promising and limitless. The new IEEE802.11b/g compatible Wireless Transmitter WT-2A also provides faster image transmission with improved security and compatibility with the latest protocols.

i-TTL Speedlight Technology

First debuted with Nikon’s D2H digital SLR camera, Nikon’s i-TTL speedlight technology is arguably the most robust and advanced speedlight system in the world, and holds limitless possibilities for all kinds of photographers using creative lighting. i-TTL technology in the D2X allows photographers to wirelessly control in full TTL, up to 3 groups of Speedlights, with any number of individual speedlights in each group. Photographers can relinquish all cords and cables or the need to ever calculate flash and distance ratios, because the i-TTL systems is capable of making all exposure calculations in real time, wirelessly, during the exposure to deliver a perfect flash exposure in any situation. Photographers can even maintain full control of each group of speedlights from a master, on-camera Speedlight, by dialing up or down flash exposure values for each group. This technology can potentially distill an entire portrait lighting system into a small set of multiple SB800 and SB600 Speedlights.

DX Nikkor Lenses

Since the launch of the D1 in 1999, all Nikon digital SLR cameras, from consumer-class to professional models, have utilized Nikon DX Format sensors of consistent size. Optimized for this size sensor, DX Nikkor lenses are designed to achieve outstanding center-to-edge-to-corner performance, and offer photographers among the widest angle lenses available today for digital photography.

Nikon PictureProject and Capture 4.2 Software

The D2X will be bundled with Nikon’s PictureProject software, an intuitive software application that provides image transfer, image organization, simple image editing (NEF plug-in included), and print layout functions. The D2X is also compatible with Nikon Capture 4.2 software (optional), that features improved functions as well as Nikon Capture Camera Control that can now be used to control the camera from a computer over a USB connection or a wireless LAN (requires WT-2A).

Major Features:

New image sensor with 12.4 effective megapixels: The new CMOS image sensor provides both high image quality and high-speed performance. Despite the extremely high resolution achieved with 12.4 effective megapixels, image data is recorded at very high speed using a 4-channel output method.

New image processing algorithm produces high-quality images: Improvements in the precision of the analog processing portion of A/D conversion from the image sensor are key elements that make high image-quality possible. After digital conversion, a new processing method has been added to increase image-processing precision in the ASIC for smoother display of tones from highlight to shadow portions of the image.

Support for the reproduction of colors in the sYCC range, and support for the broader range of colors in the Adobe RGB profile: Output of JPEG data in the broader range of colors provided by the sYCC color profile found in many of the latest printers is possible so that high image quality can be maintained even with printing from a home printer.

Continuous shooting at 5 fps at 12.4 megapixel: High Speed Cropped Image function for high speed 8fps shooting at 6.8 megapixels: A continuous shooting rate of 8 frames per second is possible when the new High Speed Cropped Image mode is used. This records the center portion of the image sensor at 6.8 megapixel resolution. This function gives the photographer the advantage of boosting the continuous framing rate while narrowing the angle of view to 2X, thus providing even more versatility – especially when using a zoom-telephoto or telephoto Nikkor lenses.

Faster read/write speed for the memory card and a USB 2.0 interface for faster image transfer: Read/write time of the memory card has been reduced and a USB 2.0 Hi-Speed interface has been adopted for faster transfer of images from the camera. These improvements mean that the user will not notice a decrease in the rate at which operations requiring writing to the memory card or image transfer are performed despite the significant increase in image resolution.

Creative in-camera effects, Image Overlay and Multiple Exposure: The new Multiple Exposure function creates a single image from up to 10 consecutive exposures. As exposure for each image can be adjusted to prevent over-exposure, the exposure for the final resulting image will be optimized. The Image Overlay function merges selected RAW (NEF) files already stored on the CF card to create a new image file within the camera.

Advanced 3D-Color Matrix Metering II to prevent highlight portions from being washed out and the loss of detail in shadow portions: Higher precision has been developed for Nikon’s acclaimed 3D-Color Matrix Metering II with the addition of more refined exposure evaluation algorithms and a larger database for difficult-to-meter scenes provides stunning exposures every time.

A 2.5-inch LCD monitor, large enough to display various settings and information for easy recognition: D2X also incorporates a large 2.5 inch 235,000 pixel high resolution LCD monitor display for clearer viewing and larger type fonts also improve access to color coded menus. RGB Histogram for images can be easily viewed in the large LCD monitor. It is also possible to display channel-specific ([R] red, [G] green or [B] blue) histograms for immediate and detailed image verification.

Functions such as World Time, automatic rotation of images captured in portrait (tall) orientation: The World Time function has been added for the convenience of professional photographers who are active globally. The auto image-rotation function made popular with the D70 automatically rotates images captured in portrait (tall) orientation so that they are displayed in the same portrait orientation in the rear LCD monitor during playback which is especially useful when the D2X is set to Slide Show mode and images are displayed on a monitor or conventional TV screen. Images captured in portrait (tall) orientation are also automatically rotated for correct display in PictureProject and Nikon Capture 4.

GPS support for the recording of location information with shooting data: Location information such as latitude, longitude and altitude can be transferred from a GPS device and recorded with the shooting data for an image. Nikon has developed the new MC-35 cable (optional) for connection to NMEA0183-compatible GPS devices.

Excellent response with the same quick power up and 37ms release time lag as the D2H: With rapid power up and short release time lag, the same high-speed performance as that found with the D2H allows the photographer to concentrate on capturing the decisive moment.

A body designed with emphasis on ease of operation, durability and water-resistance: The D2X body design, while similar to that of the D2H, has been optimized for easy operation with emphasis on the convenient placement of camera buttons. The durability and water-resistance of the D2X, however, doesn’t end with the body. Internal mechanisms such as the shutter unit and mirror balancer have also been designed for the maximum durability required of professional cameras.

The D2X supports i-TTL with the SB-800 and SB-600 Speedlights for Nikon’s Creative Lighting System compatibility: When used in combination with the SB-800 or SB-600 Speedlights, the D2X supports Nikon’s Creative Lighting System with high-precision flash photography using i-TTL Advanced Wireless Lighting control.

In addition to DX Nikkor lenses, the D2X also supports more than 50 world class AF Nikkor lenses: In addition to our expanding line of DX Nikkor lenses designed specifically for Nikon digital SLR cameras, all of our conventional AF Nikkor lenses can also be mounted on the D2X.

Support for the Wireless Transmitter WT-1A and the new IEEE802.11b/g compatible WT-2A for transferring image files directly from the D2X over a wireless LAN: In addition to the WT-1A, which expanded the possibilities in photography, the D2X also supports the new high-speed, IEE802.11b/g compatible Wireless Transmitter WT-2A with enhanced image transfer protocols and increased security. When used with Nikon Capture 4 (version 4.2 or later), wireless camera control from a computer is also possible.

Creating secure interface with a memory card: D2X marks a world first by supporting a new function of secure interface between the user’s CompactFlash card and digital camera. Once configured, the stored content on the card can only be accessed by designated D2X camera with the matching encryption keys or via password access on a PC, providing the highest level of security for photographers who document confidential or classified information. This new function can be available only when D2X works with Lexar’s specific memory cards to be developed together with D2X.

Similar cameras (4)

APS-C • Auto focus • Digital • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Fujifilm FinePix S1 Pro E, 1/2000 TTL • OA PASM 2000
Fujifilm FinePix S2 Pro E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2002
Fujifilm FinePix S3 Pro E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2004
Fujifilm FinePix S5 Pro E, 1/8000 TTL • OA PASM 2006
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.

The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.