Nikon D200

APS-C AF digital SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:November 2005
System: Nikon F APS-C (1999)
Format:
Maximum format:APS-C
Imaging sensor:23.6 × 15.8mm CCD sensor
Resolution:3872 × 2592 - 10 MP
Crop factor:1.52x
Sensor-shift image stabilization:-
Mount and Flange focal distance:Nikon F [46.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:830g
Dimensions:147x113x74mm

Manufacturer description

Nikon launches its powerful, feature-packed D200 digital SLR camera, delivering a high-precision, high-performance package and creating a new class of camera between entry-level and professional digital SLRs.

The Nikon D200 combines the solid look and feel and advanced camera operation of Nikon’s D2 professional series with the approved user-friendliness and stunning image quality that are the hallmarks of all Nikon digital SLRs.

The D200 has been crafted to connect a range of newly developed Nikon technologies with advanced features inherited from the Nikon D2x, ensuring an ultimate shooting experience with exceptional and versatile imaging performance, high speed and an instant response. The result is a blend of superb features, high quality components and fantastic results.

This combination makes the D200 perfect for passionate, dedicated amateur photographers, business users in fields such as the police, dentistry and museums and professionals or semi-professionals looking for a second camera to complement their Nikon D2x or D2Hs.

Solid look and feel

The D200 boasts a lightweight, yet durable and robust magnesium alloy body and an advanced sealing system that protects the camera from moisture and dust, making it suitable for a range of rigorous and challenging assignments. The integrated double-bladed shutter, which incorporates a refined mirror balance system, has been tested to well in excess of 100,000 cycles.

Advanced operation

The D200’s camera operation is inherited from the Nikon D2x, and boasts more than 40 well organised custom settings, so it is ideally suited to the user’s needs and preferences. The large, bright viewfinder offers a great 0,94x magnification and 95% frame coverage both horizontally and vertically to guarantee exceptionally detailed viewing control.

A 2.5 inch high resolution LCD screen provides an ultra-wide 170° viewing angle from all directions. Images on the D200 can be magnified by up to 400% so users can check for fine detail, adding to the rich and varied experience.

The top LCD panel is the largest in the industry, containing a wealth of data such as shooting mode, battery condition, card information, gridline display, shutter speed, F stop and shots remaining. A new colour-coded menu display facilitates easy viewing, supported by intuitive keywords to assist speedy navigation.

The newly-developed high-energy EN-EL3e rechargeable lithium-ion battery delivers enough power to the D200 to support the shooting of up to 1,800 images on a single charge, which takes no longer than 2.5 hours. Battery status can be checked through a real-time fuel gauge system, found in the menu. An optional MB-D200 battery pack extends shooting capability, using AA-size batteries (six are needed) or two NE-EL3e’s.

Ultimate shooting experience

The D200 is ideal for capturing unexpected or fleeting moments, thanks to the 0.15 second power-up, a speedy shutter lag time of just 50 milliseconds and a shortened viewfinder blackout time of 105 milliseconds.

The D200 is also capable of ultra high-speed continuous shooting of five frames per second, capturing up to 37* pictures in JPEG or 22* in RAW format. A newly developed and highly flexible Multi - CAM1000 Autofocus features a pinpoint 11-area AF system inherited from Nikon D2 series as well as a 7-wide area AF to focus on larger moving objects easily.

*When using a SanDisk SDCFH (Ultra II) or SDCFX (Extreme III) 1GB CF card.

Another feature inherited from the D2X is the 3D-Colour Matrix Metering II, which delivers optimised exposure using new technology developed for the Nikon 1,005 pixel RGB exposure/Colour Matrix Metering sensor. This system evaluates seven parameters in every shot – including brightness, colour, contrast, selected focus area, camera-to-subject distance - and references this data against an on-board database of over 30,000 actual photographic scenes to instantly and accurately calculate the final value.

Professional results

A fundamental feature of the D200 is a newly developed 10.2 effective megapixel Nikon DX Format CCD image sensor that captures high level sharpness and colour at 3,872 x 2,592 pixels size – delivering the right resolution to support significant image enlargements and enable greater freedom for creative cropping. The highly sensitive new sensor covers an ISO range from 100 – 1600, rising to 3200 in Hi-1.

High speed image processing is inherited from the Nikon D2x, guaranteeing fine colour gradations and smooth transitions. A new Optical Low Pass Filter helps prevent moiré, colour fringing and shifting to get even greater colours.

For added control, saturation and highlights of a shot can be controlled easily using the D200’s RBG histograms on the LCD monitor.

In addition, new image optimisation modes enable D200 users to produce results that more closely match their intended results, with the ability to optimise sharpening, tone and contrast, colour, saturation and hue in choices including Softer, Normal, More vivid, Portrait and Black and White in-camera.

Unparalleled possibilities

Like all Nikon digital SLR cameras, the D200 is compatible with Nikon’s Total Imaging System which means it can be teamed with over 50 high quality AF Nikkor lenses, including renowned DX Nikkors as well as non-CPU lenses. It also opens up the creative possibilities that can achieved with Nikon’s Creative Lighting System thanks to a built-in i-TTL Speedlight which can serve as master in Advanced Wireless Lighting systems.

The D200 incorporates an x-Sync terminal to connect to studio lighting and features GPS support to record geographical data of the shot, as well as wireless functionality for image capture and transfer. Nikon D200 Major features

Exceptional imaging performance

  • Newly developed 10.2 effective megapixel Nikon DX Format CCD image sensor with the power to capture exceptional sharpness and faithful colour at 3,872 x 2,592 pixels size. Incorporates high-speed 4-channel data output that contributes to 5fps continuous shooting performance and employs a newly developed Optical Low Pass Filter that helps prevent moiré, colour fringing and shifting while improving resolving power.
  • Incorporates the industry-leading advanced imaging processing engine of the D2x, which allows colour-independent pre-conditioning prior to A/D conversion to work in symphony with advanced digital image processing algorithms to achieve fine colour gradations with exceptionally smooth, consistent transitions.
  • Newly developed 11-area AF system packs the same number of focus areas available for the professional D2 series into a space-efficient system, with the photographer able to select individual focus areas from 11-area wide and 7 wide-area AF for Single Area AF, Dynamic AF that delivers precise Continuous servo AF mode operation for moving subjects, Closest Subject Priority Dynamic AF and also Group Dynamic AF. All these AF options are supported by refined lens-controlling algorithms that realize improved focus precision, better subject acquisition capability, keener subject tracking ability and overall improved system response.
  • 3D Colour Matrix Metering II (AE) – as used in the D2x – delivers optimized exposure through the use of new technology developed for the Nikon 1,005-pixel RGB exposure/Colour Matrix Metering Sensor. Evaluating brightness, colour, contrast, selected focus area and camera-to-subject distance, this system references all such data against an expanded onboard database that has been created using data from more than 30,000 actual photographic scenes to instantly and accurately calculate the final value with high-level dependability during both automatic and manual operation. Also offers variable size centre-weighted metering which concentrates 75% of sensitivity within the centre-weighted circle, as well as spot metering supporting each individual sensor of both the 7 wide-area AF and 11-area AF groups.
  • New image optimization modes enable photographers to produce results more closely matching the intended results, with a range of choice comprising optimization of sharpening, tone (contrast), colour, saturation, and hue, with choices from Normal, Softer, Vivid, More vivid, Portrait, Custom and Black-and-white optimization.

Impressively high speed

  • Near instant power-up of 0.15 seconds lets photographers respond to sudden opportunities.
  • A mere 50-millisecond shutter time lag promotes fast handling, while 105-millisecond viewfinder blackout realizes assured control that’s especially useful during continuous shooting.
  • Swift continuous shooting performance at 5 frames per second enables the shooting of up to 37 JPEG (Fine-Large) images* or up to 22 NEF (RAW) images*, with shutter speeds ranging from 1/8,000 of a second to 30 seconds.

*When using a SanDisk SDCFH (Ultra II) or SDCFX (Extreme III) 1GB CF card.

Further versatility

  • Multiple exposure enables up to 10 separate images to be used to create a single composite to produce imaginative and even surreal results.
  • Image overlay function creates a composite image in-camera from two selected NEF (RAW) images. The original files remain unaltered, opacity can be precisely controlled and the resultant image can be saved in either RAW, JPEG or TIFF format.
  • Connection to a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit via an optionally available GPS Adapter Cord MC-35 enables the recording of data including latitude, longitude, elevation and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) along with conventional shooting data for each image.
  • A large 2.5-inch LCD monitor with a 170˚ viewing angle from every direction assists accurate assessment of sharpness by enabling image preview with up to 400% magnification. It also offers RGB information as a single display or separate histograms for each colour channel to enable better exposure-related decision-making.
  • The large top LCD panel makes it easy to read a wealth of data at a glance, such as shooting mode, battery condition, card information, gridline display, shutter speed, F stop and number of remaining shots.
  • A new colour-coded menu display features a colour scheme that promotes easy viewing as well as the use of intuitive keywords that assist speedy navigation. There’s also a Recent Settings list that displays the last 14 settings selected from shooting and Custom menus and playback options include single frame, 4- or 9-image thumbnail display, zoom with scroll, histogram indication and highlight point display.
  • A chassis crafted from magnesium alloy gives the D200 lightweight resilience, while an enhanced sealing system helps protect each and every exterior seam from potentially damaging dust and moisture.
  • A double-bladed shutter unit tested to well over 100,000 cycles ensures highly reliable, highly durable performance. The shutter unit also employs a refined mirror balance mechanism that allows the mirror to complete its motion cycle and reach a complete stop with virtually no mirror bounce, providing the extended viewfinder visibility essential for fast, accurate focus tracking and continuous shooting.
  • The newly developed high-energy EN-EL3e rechargeable lithium-ion battery delivers enough power to support the shooting of up to 1,800 images on a single charge, can be recharged at any time and features a handy real-time fuel gauge system display that shows remaining charge by percentage, number of shots since last charge and overall battery status.
  • The optionally available MB-D200 battery pack adds extended shooting capability with an ergonomic design. Able to run on either six AA-size batteries or two EN-EL3e batteries*, it also features an additional command dial and alternative buttons for shutter release and AF start that make for more comfortable vertical shooting. * Compatible AA-size batteries comprise alkaline, NiMH, lithium and nickel-manganese batteries.
  • The Wireless Transmitter WT-3* adds all the convenience of IEEE802.11b/g capability, enabling cable-free image transfer to a compatible computer while also supporting wide-ranging network and security protocols for added assurance.

* Available only in countries that approve the use of thirteen frequency channels.

Compatible with Nikon’s Total Imaging System

  • Compatible with Nikon’s digital-exclusive DX Nikkor lenses as well as Nikon’s 35mm/digital compatible AF Nikkor System.
  • Compatibility with the Nikon Creative Lighting System allows the D200 to work seamlessly with SB-800, SB-600 and SB-R200 Speedlights to deliver the benefits of i-TTL flash control’s advanced monitor pre-flash, accurate measurement for bounce and versatile wireless operation. SB-600 and SB-800 Speedlights also offer a Wide-Area AF-assist Illuminator specially tailored to the D200’s 11-area Multi-CAM 1000 AF Sensor Module.
  • Nikon Capture 4 (Ver. 4.4) unlocks the extensive potential of NEF (Nikon Electronic Format). Not only does it make smoother fidelity for tonal and other colour corrections possible, but it also empowers photographers to reprocess images at any time and save the results to the original NEF file as a new Instruction Set, or as a TIFF or JPEG file, while retaining the integrity of the original data at all times.
  • PictureProject Ver. 1.6 (complimentary with camera) empowers the photographer with tools that help expand the enjoyment of photography. These include tools for Organizing the images to promote effective viewing, Automatic and manual options for image editing, Design selections that help make multi-image album and presentation pages, and tools to help photographers share images with others through CD/DVD burning, slide shows, muvee presentations, fast and effective e-mailing and access to Nikon’s PictureProject In-touch. In addition to helping anyone enjoy their pictures, PictureProject also provides the means to make sure that the computer’s hard drive won’t turn into an “electronic shoe box” full of pictures – instead they can be kept as neatly ordered as the user like.

Similar cameras (4)

APS-C • Auto focus • Digital • Singe-lens reflex • Nikon F mount

Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Fujifilm FinePix S1 Pro E, 1/2000 TTL • OA PASM 2000
Fujifilm FinePix S2 Pro E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2002
Fujifilm FinePix S3 Pro E, 1/4000 TTL • OA PASM 2004
Fujifilm FinePix S5 Pro E, 1/8000 TTL • OA PASM 2006
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.