Kine-Exakta

35mm MF film SLR camera • Discontinued

Specification

Format:
35mm full frame
Film type:
135 cartridge-loaded film
Exakta [44.7mm]
Shutter:
Type:
Focal-plane
Model:
Mechanical
Speeds:
12 - 1/1000 + B, Z
Exposure:
Exposure metering:
None
Exposure modes:
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:
900g
Dimensions:
150x95x40mm

Manufacturer description #1

Kine-Exakta For 24 × 36 mm. Films

Latest Introduction for 1937

Patent Nos. 410306-462764

The most novel precision-made Miniature Reflex for pictures 24 × 36 mm.

Takes all standard perforated 36-exposure films.

A real Reflex - no parallax.

Crystal Focussing Screen, image magnified two diameters.

Hood fitted with extra magnifier for critical focussing.

Interchangeable Lenses in new locking bayonet catch mounts.

Focussing, scaled from three feet to infinity.

Lenses can be changed without fogging film.

The action of setting the shutter changes the film.

Picture Counter for 36 exposures.

Automatic Shutter Lock; shutter can only be released when Finder Hood is erect.

A special cutter is embodied in the camera so that fewer exposures than 36 can be made, the exposed section cut off, taken out and finished.

Specification:

Die-cast light metal body - completely light-tight; folding finder hood opening by pressure on a button; frame hinder; built-in ground glass screen and combined magnifier; second accessory magnifier for critical focussing; rewinding and film-cutting devices; mechanical inteconnection between shutter and film wind; picture counter to 36 exposures. Focal-plane self-capping shutter, giving exposures between 12 seconds and 1/1000th second normally and 6 seconds and 1 1000th second with delayed action mechanism. The Delayed Action Control allows 12 seconds to elapse after the release has been pressed before the shutter operates. Interchangeable lenses in bayonet fitting. Precision helical focussing from infinity to 3 feet. Automatic shutter lock, which only allows the shutter to be released when the finder hood is erect. Precision film channel in camera back. Tripod bush, leather neck sling, flexible wire release and connection sockets for flash-bulb work included.

Manufacturer description #2

The KINE-EXAKTA is a single-lens reflex camera, the lens forming the image in the camera produces the focussing image on the ground-glass screen. Because of this fact, the ground glass shows an image that is always identical with that to be taken later by the camera, and one may focus on any object seen, observe depth of focus critically, and compose the scene, in full confidence that what appears there will be seen in the negative. To ensure reliability in focussing, the image seen is automatically enlarged by a magnifier, while a supplementary magnifier is included in the front of the finder hood, by means of which the central portion of the image can be viewed in still greater enlargement. Therefore the greatest accuracy in focussing becomes quite simple, and negatives are produced which will stand almost any degree of enlargement.

Another important point: The enlarged image seen is in its full colours, permitting an exact examination of the colour composition. For all those who are interested in colour work, the Kine-Exakta is the camera par excellence.

KINE-EXAKTA

1939 MODEL

Some of the technical advantages incorporated in the KINE-EXAKTA are -

Unified control by single winding lever gives the camera a strikingly rapid action, and promotes readiness for use in the shortest space of time.

A single push moves the winding lever across to the left, and this movement winds up the shutter, moves on the film to the next picture, sets the reflex mirror inside the camera, and turns on the picture counter to the next number. The moment the winding lever is released, it springs back to its original position.

The picture counter is placed so that it can readily be seen from above when the camera is being used.

An exceedingly wide range of automatic shutter speeds is given by the Exakta focal plane shutter, the controls of which are also on top of the camera. The shorter exposures between 1/25 and 1/1000th of a second, which serve for amateur snapshots and for rapid work on the fastest moving objects, are set by a single knob.

A further control knob gives the longer exposures between 1/10th sec and 12 full secs., and covers the times required for photography in the streets at night, in the theatre or at home in ordinary room lighting. A built-in delayed action shutter release can be used with any exposure time between 1/1000th of a second and 6 full seconds.

The automatic safety lock makes it impossible to expose the film accidentally. When the finder hood is closed, the shutter cannot be released, so that as long as the subject to be taken cannot be seen in the view-finder, no exposure can be made.

The Kine-Exaktais also provided with a very useful and exclusive feature; there is no need to wait until all 36 exposures have been made, for a small knife inside the camera can be used to cut off the exposed section of the film and allow it to be given immediate development.

The depth of focus problem - a very real one in a miniature camera with an ultra-fast lens - is dealt with in the view-finder of the Kine-Exakta, but where rapid snapshot work is to be done a glance from above at the lens will indicate the depth of focus for a special scale is provided on the focussing mount. By means of this scale the lens may be focussed to give any necessary depth of focus at a predetermined aperture.

To supplement the advantages given by the camera, a special cassette is available. This is loaded with ordinary cinema film, 35 mm. wide, which gives the lowest possible cost of negative material and allows film strips of any length up to 36 pictures to be used in the camera.

Manufacturer description #3

Special advantages of the camera KINE EXAKTA

The camera KINE EXAKTA is in good repute because of its manysidedness and its reliable construction. Some of its most effective advantages are:

  • No parallax error - no difference whatsoever between the image on the ground glass and the negative.
  • The camera is fit for all sorts of lenses (telelenses, wide angle lenses, lenses with large aperture).
  • The lenses may be interchanged quickly and easily by the aid of the bayonet mounting.
  • Clear and magnified picture on the ground glass.
  • Especially fit for colour pictures.
  • Focal plane shutter from 1/1000 to 12 seconds.
  • Self portrait mechanism.
  • Fully automatical moving of the film by winding up the shutter.
  • Picture counter for 36 pictures.
  • Photo-flash bulb attachment.
  • Many special rings and extension tubes for micrography and macrography. (At double extension it is possible to take pictures in original size).
  • Special knife for cutting the exposed film.

Manufacturer description #4

Acknowledged by all as one of the world's fine cameras, the Kine Exakta stands out as a superb 35 mm. single lens reflex. Fully automatic and complete, even to built-in flash, this instrument will appeal to that host of photographers who have happily discovered the superiority of the reflex finder over all others for purposes of composition.

Special features are as follows:

  • Use of 35 mm. film in standard cartridge form, regularly available in twenty or thirty-six exposures, obtainable in more types of emulsions than any other roll film size, both in black-and-white and color.
  • Provision to cut and remove exposed portion of film at will.
  • Condenser type magnifying ground glass, considered best for miniature reflex cameras.
  • Completely removable back for ease in loading and effective cleaning.
  • Cable release socket, tripod socket, and neck strap eyelets, all conveniently placed.
  • Self-erecting hood, incorporating a large built-in magnifier and a direct view frame finder. Swinging the magnifier into position automatically permits hypercritical focusing and at the same time reveals the direct view finder. Magnifier may be returned at the mere touch of a button.
  • Accidental exposures impossible on account of locking of shutter release mechanism with hood closed.
  • Instantly removable lens due to ingenious fast-acting bayonet lock. Individual lens mounts are provided with diaphragm, focusing, and depth of field scales. Camera focuses as close as 7/10 meter (28") approximately.
  • The most versatile focal plane shutter offered on any instrument, regardless of size. Twenty speeds from 1/1000 second to twelve seconds - plus delayed action exposures of fourteen speeds from 1/1000 to six seconds. The delayed action or self-timer mechanism runs for twelve seconds. Intentional double or multiple exposures can be made at will by winding the shutter knob (both knobs if slow speeds or delayed action exposures are desired) without recourse to the automatic film advance and shutter winding lever. Re-winding the shutter in this manner also re-sets the mirror so that focusing and composing can be accomplished on the second or subsequent exposures. Yet the camera is designed so that double exposures are prevented in ordinary operation!
  • Built-in flash synchronizer.
  • All controls arranged especially for fast and easy camera manipulation.

Manufacturer description #5

The Kine-Exakta is a high-quality miniature reflex camera, and it is not in the least difficult to handie so long as its controls are properly understood by the photographer.

The camera is loaded with normal 35-mm. cinema film, which may be obtained in all civilised countries of the world. This film may be obtained in long rolls of 100 feet, 33 feet, or 16 feet in tin boxes (which must only be opened in the dark-room), in light-tight "cartridges" containing 63 inches of film for 36 exposures, or as daylight-loading spools with the same content.

Orthochromatic and panchromatic grades of film are available. The Kine-Exakta is designed to take all the film cartridges on the market and also the daylight-loading spools ("Contax spools") available.

The simplest form in which to use film is probably the "cartridge". Here the film is wound after exposure on the spare spool core delivered with the camera. After all the 36 exposures have been made, the film is rewound into the cartridge once more (the camera remaining closed), after which process the cartridge can be remoyed in daylight. The use of a daylight-loading spool is equally simple.

Interchangeable lenses, quickly attached to the bayonet joint of the camera in place of the standard lens, are available to suit the special fields of the portrait photographer, the pressman, the sporting photographer, the scientist, and the technical photographer, as well as all the multifarious sides of amateur photography. This range of lenses increases the field of work of the camera to that of a universal miniature instrument.

In particular, a considerable number of first-class branded lenses are available for the camera, from telephoto types of very long foous to the fastest short-focus anastigmats with apertures of f/1.9. So far as the lenses are concerned, therefore, the entire field of photography is covered, from long-distance scientific work to night snapshots for the illustrated press. More important still, the Exakta camera requires no special range of view-finders, since the image on the ground-glass screen is identical with that given by the lens on the negative. Focussing and composition are equally simple with any lens in the range provided.

Manufacturer description #6

The Ihagee Chromium EXAKTA

True Reflex Cameras.

KINE EXAKTA Miniature Reflex. 36 exposures 24 x 36 mm. per load.

Flexibility and readiness for use are special virtues of the Kine-Exakta. There is no field of photography in which it is not valuable: landscapes, portraits, architecture, sporting events, night and stage work, photo-micrography, copying... all are covered by the camera and the range of accessories manufactured for use in conjunction with it. The camera is ready for use in a moment, so that it is always at hand for snapshot work. The lens may normally be left at infinity focus, but it can be released in a moment from its strong and stable bayonet mount and a wide-angle or telephoto lens substituted for it. A slight pressure on a small button, and the finder hood springs into position - when closed, the hood locks the camera shutter so that the release is put out of action. This last mechanism does away with the possibility of accidental exposures when the camera is not in use. Focussing from infinity to 3 feet away is arranged by means of a precision-cut helical screw lens mount, while depth of focus at any focussing distance and for any aperture can be read from a supplementary scale on the same mount. This last is a refinement, for the image on the focussing screen also shows the depth of focus in the actual picture.

KINE-EXAKTA taking 24 x 36 mm. (1 x 1 1/2 in.) pictures.

Specification: Light alloy body, with finder hood opening automatically by pressing a button, and including frame finder. Accessory magnifier for enlarging the focussing screen in critical work, and normal magnifier embodied in screen for ordinary use. Film rewind and film knife. Mechanically connected film and shutter winding gear, giving automatic film winding and avoiding double exposure. Picture counter up to 36 exposures. Focal-plane shutter (self-capping) giving Time, Bulb, and instantaneous speeds, the latter including 1/1000th second to 1/25th second, and short automatic time exposures up to 12 seconds (6 seconds when automatic delayed-action release is in use). Interchangeable lens in bayonet mounting. Automatic shutter lock put into action by lowering the finder hood. Simple but accurate film guide. Tripod bush. Leather neck strap. Contact points for synchronised flash-bulb outfit. Flexible wire release. Chrome-plated external metal parts.

From the editor

The world's first 35mm SLR camera. Presented by Ihagee East at the Leipziger Frühjahrsmesse in March 1936.

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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.