Exakta Varex

aka Exakta V

35mm MF film SLR camera • Discontinued

Specification

Format:
35mm full frame
Film type:
135 cartridge-loaded film
Exakta [44.7mm]
Shutter:
Type:
Focal-plane
Model:
Mechanical
Speeds:
12 - 1/1000 + B, Z
Exposure:
Exposure metering:
None
Exposure modes:
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:
950g
Dimensions:
150x95x75mm

Manufacturer description #1

1950 MODEL

WITH TWO BUILT-IN

INTERCHANGEABLE VIEWFINDERS

The 1950 Exakta serves as two cameras while you buy only one... Two built-in, interchangeable viewfinders focus through the lens... Reflex Hood and Penta-Prism Eye Level Sport Finder... You switch in a jifty from one to the other!

The distinguished Kine Exakta is now available in a brilliant new convertible model... with all the advanced features, precision design, and superior performance you expect of a Kine Exakta!

Ihagee Camera Works, Dresden, is proud to present the most outstanding 35mm single lens reflex to bear the famous Exakta name. Here is a camera of such breathtaking design that you really must see it for yourself - there is no other way to appreciate how far it exceeds anything you have ever known before.

Imagine being able to switch, instantly, from waist-level reflex focusing to eye-level reflex prismatic focusing for sport and action photography... viewing through the Iens all the time! Your nearest camera dealer invites you to see this new camera masterpiece. It will be proof, indeed, that the 1950 Kine Exakta is the most versatile 35mm reflex camera in the world.

The Kine Exakta Camera occupies a predominant place in photography. This can be explained by the fact that the outstanding single lens reflex feature is combined with the versatility of a 35mm camera. With the Kine Exakta the photographer can control in the mirror his future picture in all its detail as the identical image seen on the ground-glass is conveyed to the film immediately after pressing the shutter knob. He can observe its composition, examine the sharpness of all objects in the viewfinders, estimate the amount of light necessary for the exposure, and balance light conditions with the depth of focus. All this is done simultaneously and with the utmost reliability. With some 35mm and twin lens reflex cameras additional finders or viewing devices are required. These additional viewing mediums are actually "strangers" to the picture as they don't actually take the picture. These finders merely show you the perspective providing you attach them and operate them properly. With the Kine Exakta all operations function from the camera lens without adding these additional finders or viewing devices. Whether it is a bird on a distant tree or an insect on an entomologist's table, one look in the Kine Exakta's mirror will secure an accurate picture. The Kine Exakta is guided by your eye to such perfection that it is deserving of the designation, "The Photographing Eye".

Parallax, which is a handicap to almost all cameras, is non-existent with the Kine Exakta. Accordingly, there is no necessity to purchase additional costly devices for the Kine Exakta as you would normally do for many other cameras. No matter how costly and precise additional viewing devices for a camera may be, the picture taking lens is always better. It can be said that if the original camera lens is employed for viewing too, the quality of the picture gains considerably. Especially in color photography it is important that the brilliancy of the picture be determined on the mirror, that brilliancy which depends on the quality of the lens. Because of this Kine Exakta Cameras are only equipped with the finest lenses produced. Since one short movement of the lever sets the shutter and transports the film simultaneously, the speed with which a series of pictures can be taken with the Kine Exakta is unsurpassed.

The Kine Exakta is a precision instrument and can only be classified with the finest mechanical devices ever employed in the field of photography. The name Exakta explains the camera -exactness. Whoever operates the Kine Exakta must comply with the requirements for handling this highly engineered instrument.

The Kine Exakta uses 35mm film in standard cartridges, both black-and-white and color-film. It provides for precise focusing which produces negatives sharp enough for mural size enlargements. Parallax-free viewing permits using the entire negative area with confidence and what is seen on the groundglass will be on the negative. Since one lens is used for both picture-taking and viewing, there is no matching problem as on the twin lens reflex cameras. This is most important for close-up work. The 35mm size permits the use of short focus, large aperture lenses with adequate depth of field for candid, stage, and night photography. Telephoto and wide angle lenses, extension tubes and microscope adapters may all be freely interchanged with the snap of a bayonet lock.

The focal plane shutter of the Kine Exakta has an unusually wide range of speeds from 12 seconds to 1/1000th of a second; it is coupled to the film transport making double exposures impossible. A delayed action release or self-timer allows the photographer to step into the picture. Flash synchronization contacts are built into the shutter. An automatic lock prevents accidental tripping of the shutter when the camera is closed.

One advantage of the 35mm film size is the ability to take up to 36 pictures on a single roll of film. Yet on occasions when only a few pictures are required in a hurry, the Kine Exakta contains a built-in film cutter which snips off the exposed film for immediate development.

***

THE NEW KINE EXAKTA

THE WORLD'S FINEST MINIATURE CAMERA!

1. The Penta-Prism finder not only focuses with the accuracy of the best coupled rangefinder but it also shows the image in full life size, upright, and correct left to right.

2. World's finest flash synchronization for all flashbulbs with delay of 20 milliseconds. Also separate flash synchronization outlet for synchronization with no delay and Strobe flash units.

3. No parallax with both cameras regardless whether standard or telephoto lenses are used.

4. Direct control of depth of field never before possible with any type of camera.

5. Shutter speeds from 12 second to 1/1000th of a second.

6. Self-timer for most speeds to facilitate micro-photography and night photography.

7. Easy interchangeable lenses with wide range of telephoto and wide angle lenses available. May it be a bird on a distant tree or an insect on an entomologist's table, one look in the Kine Exakta's mirror will secure an accurate picture.

8. Extension tubes and microscope adapters available for scientific and hobby photography.

9. Single lever action cocks shutter and provides automatic film transport - and allows picture taking with unsurpassed speed.

Manufacturer description #2

The EXAKTA V is the result of fifteen years of consistent development of the Kine-Exakta, the first single-lens reflex camera 1 1/2 x 1 in. Its focusing system opened up a new era in miniature photography and met with universal approval in all parts of the world.

To focus the image on the ground-glass screen of the EXAKTA V means that beginners as well as experts will master even the most difficult tasks with ease and security. The brilliant, upright, coloured, and considerably enlarged finder-image holds plenty of stimulations for composition. It permits critical focusing and control of the varying extent of depth of field effected by stopping down.

The finder-image is projected by the taking lens on to the focusing screen. The image on the screen is strictly the same as the future photograph. There is no divergence in frame (parallax), no matter how long or short the focal length of the lens, how much the camera extension is increased for close-up work, whether micro-pictures or astro-photos are taken. There is no need for additional finders, range-finders, or tables. Consequently working with the EXAKTA V is cheap, while ensuring precision results at the same time.

EXAKTA V - the Miniature Camera that comes up to your expectations

1) Film track forms part of die-cast aluminum camera-body: sturdy and reliable. Camera takes miniature cine-film of 35 mm. width, and is, consequently, small and handy,

2) Interchangeable brand-name lenses in bayonet helical focusing mount allowing near focusing down to 0.90 m. Wide variety of tele lenses and wide-angle lenses (focal lengths ranging from 4 cm. to 50 cm.).

3) Ground-glass image which is enlarged by two powerful magnifiers providing up to 6x magnification, allows of critical focusing with ease and security.

4) Superb for colour work: Coloured ground-glass image with clearly defined outline like a lantern slide.

5) Interchangeable finder-hood which opens automatically upon pressure on catch, can be adjusted for open direct vision (frame finder) or be replaced by a Special Prism. Shutter is locked when finder-hood is closed.

6) Focal-plane shutter for automatic speeds from 1/1000 to 12 sec. and short (B) and long-time (T) exposures. Delayed action release for speeds from 1/1000 to 6 sec.

7) Solid film track: film transport from cartridge into cassette or rewinding of film into cartridge both of which can be controlled from outside. Exposure counter for 36 exposures. Film cutting knife. Film transport coupled with shutter wind preventing accidental double exposures.

8) Synchronized contact sockets for flash-bulbs and electronic flash units.

9) Hinged back with reliable lock. Large tripod socket with large support. Film speed indicator. Wide assortment of accessories!

10) Two alternative focusing systems.

A new concept: The Two-System Camera

Realized for the first time in the EXAKTA V and firmly based on the single-lens reflex principle.

Reflex Finder-Hood and Special Prism - two alternative operative systems - allow of viewing and focusing the image. Being interchangeable the one system is used that promises the best results. In every case, however, the taking lens projects a finder image that is identical with the future photograph.

Used with the finder hood the EXAKTA V will master the majority of photographic tasks!

Both eyes can control with ease the greatly magnified, upright, but side-reversed, ground-glass image. Camera may be held at chest-level (looking down on to ground-glass screen), over the head (turning camera upside-down and looking up into finder-hood), and, for vertical pictures, at eye-level, when working at right angles to the subject. Fields of application: portraiture, children, animals, plants, macro-photography, tripod pictures, technical work in the studio (reproductions, still-lives, micro-photography, etc.).

Equipped with the Special Prism the EXAKTA V becomes a "speed camera" for "speed shots"!

Laterally correct reflex image, also for vertical pictures. Direct eye-level vision of the subject. Direction of eye and camera always identical. The image in the finder moves in the same direction as the subject. This is particularly important when following rapidly moving subjects in the finder.

Fields of application of Special Prism: speed shots of every description (snapshots, press work pictures, sports and stage pictures, technical speed studies, etc.).

Flashlight enables the up-to-date press photographer, the professional, and the amateur, to overcome all difficulties arising from unfavourable lighting conditions. Short exposure times and medium apertures in dark rooms are only possible if flash-light is used. Therefore the EXAKTA V has been fitted with synchronized contact sockets for the two most up-to-date flashlight systems:

1) The flash-bulb synchronization releases shutter and flash-bulb simultaneously. A newly designed EXAKTA Flashgun is available (Cat. No 148), consisting of battery-holder, reflector, and flash-lamp with spring locking device suited for all sizes and all bases of flash-bulbs.

2) The electronic flash synchronization allows of using the EXAKTA V with the well-known electronic flash units manufactured by BLAUPUNKT, MANNESMANN, RFT, etc. Effective exposure time: 1/5000 sec.! Consequently electronic flash is indicated for high-speed shots (sports, artistics, machinery, etc.). Shutter speed 1/50 sec.! Impossible to imagine a more versatile camera for the press photographer than the EXAKTA V fitted with a reliable electronic flash unit!

The EXAKTA V is delivered complete with Finder-Hood and one of the following standard lenses. The Special Prism must be ordered separately as an accessory!

f/3.5 Zeiss Tessar 5 cm.

f/2.8 Zeiss Tessar 5 cm.

f/2 Zeiss Biotar 5.8 cm.

f/1.9 Meyer Primoplan 5.8 cm.

From the editor

The world's first 35mm SLR camera with interchangeable viewfinders and interchangeable focusing screens.

The weight and dimensions are indicated for the camera body with the standard lens.

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Copyright © 2012-2024 Evgenii Artemov. All rights reserved. Translation and/or reproduction of website materials in any form, including the Internet, is prohibited without the express written permission of the website owner.

Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.