|FISHEYE||An ultra-wide angle lens with strong uncorrected barrel distortion and extreme 180-degree angle of view.|
■ Production details
|Production status:||● Discontinued|
|Original name:||Nippon Kogaku Fisheye-NIKKOR 1:5.6 f=7.5mm|
|System:||Nikon F (1959)|
■ Optical design
|Maximum format:||35mm full frame|
|Mount and Flange focal distance:||Nikon F [46.5mm]|
|Lens construction:||9 elements in 6 groups|
|Closest focusing distance:||<No data>|
|Maximum magnification:||<No data>|
|Manual focus control:||None|
■ Diaphragm mechanism
|Aperture control:||Aperture ring|
|Number of blades:||6 (six)|
■ Physical characteristics
|Maximum diameter x Length:||⌀82×44mm|
|Filters:||Removable front filters are not accepted|
|Built-in LIA, Y48, Y52, O57, R60, X0 (part of the lens optical system)|
|Lens hood:||Not available|
■ Sources of data
|1. Manufacturer's technical data.|
|2. Nikon F2 Photography Guide.|
A unique optical achievement, this all-embracing lens "sees" a full 180 deg. hemisphere - everything in front, above, below and to both sides. And it reproduces this extraordinary view of the subject as a circular composition on the film. The advantages of the Fisheye in special-effect photography are obvious. Less obvious, though no less significant are the many applications for the Fisheye in scientific and industrial work. Six filters are built into the lens on a rotating turret. Supplied with a Fisheye Finder.
The idea of a lens with a 180 deg. picture angle seems almost incredible, except that the Fisheye Nikkor achieves just that - and more - with amazing image resolution and color correction. In fact, the term picture angle is not entirely applicable. For it is generally used to describe the angle subtended by the diagonal of the film (its longest proportion), whereas the coverage of the Fisheye Nikkor is in no way limited by the format of the film.
The Fisheye Nikkor actually 'sees' a full 180 deg. hemisphere: everything in front, above, below, to either side - all around. And it records this hemisphere on the film as a circular image 23mm in diameter.
Apart from the unusual, spectacular pictorial effects obtainable with this lens, its capabilities have found many valuable scienffic and industrial applications. fn meteorology, for example, it can be used to record cloud distribution patterns in the entire sky canopy. It can also be used to measure zenith and azimuth angles of astronomical bodies.
In industry, the Fisheye has provided recorded observation of boiler interiors, oil lines, sewer conduits, cylinder bores, and other constricted enclosures which must be shown in their entirety.
The Fisheye has also been used for surveillance, for automatic time studies of customer movement and concentration in large retail stores, for sports action and architectural photos, etc. The scope of applications is almost unlimited.
The Fisheye Nikkor 7.5mm f5.6 can be used on both the Nikon F and Nikkormat FT. Because of the physical depth of this lens, the camera mirror must be locked in 'up' position, thus making the reflex finder inoperative. Instead, a 160 deg. optical finder, furnished with the lens, is mounted on the camera, and used for viewing.
Note: When used with a Photomic-equipped Nikon F, the Photomic system must be removed.
There is no need nor provision for focusing because of the extreme depth-of-field of the lens (20 inches to infinity at full aperture). And because of its extreme angle, it cannot be used with a lens hood.
The Fisheye Nikkor has 6 built-in filters mounted on a turret. The desired filter is brought into the optical path of the lens by rotating the external Filter Selector dial until the desired filter designation, engraved on the rim of the dial, appears opposite the pointer.
The successor of the Fisheye-Nikkor 8mm f8 (1962). Except for the fact it is one stop faster the specification and performance are similar to the earlier lens.
Slow full-frame fisheye lens • Professional model (Top class)
A fisheye lens is a type of ultra-wide angle lenses with extreme 180 degree angle of view. Unlike conventional wide-angle lenses, fisheyes are not corrected for distortion - strong barrel distortion is a characteristic of all lenses of such class.
Fisheye lenses are normally used for specialized purposes and unusual special effects in advertising, commercial, scientific, surveillance, meteorologic and astronomic photography, but also popular for shooting extremely wide landscapes, interiors, action sports and even funny close-up portraits.
There are two types of fisheye lenses:
Genres or subjects of photography (2):
Scientific photography • Industrial photography
Adaptation to digital SLR cameras:
Canon EOS SLRs • Sigma SD SLRs • Sony SLRs/SLTs • Pentax SLRs • More information
In order to adapt the lens, the flange focal distance (FFD) of the lens mount must be equal to or greater than the FFD of the camera mount. This lens has the Nikon F mount with a FFD of 46.5mm. This is even shorter than the FFD of Canon EOS digital SLR cameras, which have the shortest FFD of 44mm of any modern digital SLR cameras. Therefore, this lens cannot be adapted to any digital SLR camera.
Recommended slowest shutter speed when shooting static subjects handheld:
1/8th of a second
Sorted by focal length and speed, in ascending order
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR 6mm F/5.6||M||9 - 6||--||1970 ●|
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR Auto 6mm F/2.8||A||12 - 9||0.25m||--||1972 ●|
|Nikon AI Fisheye-NIKKOR 6mm F/2.8||A||12 - 9||0.25m||--||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI-S Fisheye-NIKKOR 6mm F/2.8||A||12 - 9||0.25m||--||1982 ●|
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR 8mm F/8||M||9 - 5||--||1962 ●|
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR Auto 8mm F/2.8||A||10 - 8||0.3m||--||1970 ●|
|Nikon AI Fisheye-NIKKOR 8mm F/2.8||A||10 - 8||0.3m||--||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI-S Fisheye-NIKKOR 8mm F/2.8||A||10 - 8||0.3m||--||1981 ●|
|Nikon OP-Fisheye-NIKKOR 10mm F/5.6||M||9 - 6||--||1968 ●|
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR Auto 16mm F/3.5||A||8 - 5||0.3m||--||1973 ●|
|Nikon Fisheye-NIKKOR 16mm F/3.5||A||8 - 5||0.3m||--||1975 ●|
|Nikon AI Fisheye-NIKKOR 16mm F/3.5||A||8 - 5||0.3m||--||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI Fisheye-NIKKOR 16mm F/2.8||A||8 - 5||0.3m||--||1979 ●|
|Nikon AI-S Fisheye-NIKKOR 16mm F/2.8||A||8 - 5||0.3m||--||1981 ●|
Sorted by manufacturer name
|Coastal Opt 7.45mm F/2.8 Circular Fisheye (Jenoptik)||M||11 - 7||--||1997 ●|
|Samyang 8mm F/3.5 AS IF Fisheye MC CS (Bower, Rokinon, Vivitar Series 1, Walimex Pro) • APS-C||10 - 7||0.3m||--||2009 ●|
|Samyang 8mm F/3.5 AS IF Fisheye UMC CS II DH (Bower, Rokinon, Vivitar Series 1, Walimex Pro) • APS-C||10 - 7||0.3m||--||2012 ●|
|Sigma MF 8mm F/4 Circular Fisheye||A||10 - 6||0.2m||--||1988 ●|
|Sigma MF 8mm F/4 Circular Fisheye ZEN||A||10 - 6||0.2m||--||1992 ●|
|Sigma MF 8mm F/4 Filtermatic Circular Fisheye||A||11 - 7||0.2m||--||1983 ●|
Offer optical performance similar to AI Nikkors but do not incorporate the automatic maximum-aperture indexing (AI) and Aperture Direct Reading (ADR) features. They are used with stopdown exposure measurement on Nikon cameras. However, most Auto-Nikkors equipped with meter-coupling shoe can be converted to AI operation and full-aperture metering.
Diaphragms - automatic, preset, or manual - of non-AI and AI lens types function in an identical manner with all Nikon-system cameras.
The very first lenses for the Nikon F and the Nikkormat FT/FTN belong to the A-type and can be distinguished by the fact that no screw heads are visible on the lens bayonet ring, and the distance scale was only marked in meters. Later A-type lenses have screw heads protruding through the lens bayonet and a distance scale in both meters and feet. All A-type lenses have a chrome finished filter ring and the designation was engraved with the name "Nikkor", the maximum aperture, and the focal length. Early A-types have the focal length shown in centimeters, whilst on later lenses it is given in millimeters. Lenses having "Auto" are equipped with automatic diaphragms which are coupled directly to the shutter release and mirror action mechanisms.
Several of these lenses were modified by the addition of multi-coating to their glass elements to become C-types.
The code letter after the "Nikkor" engraving is indicative of the number of elements in each lens. The letters are from Latin or Greek: U for 1 element (Uns),B for 2 elements (Bini), T for 3 elements (Tres), Q for 4 elements (Quatuor), P for 5 elements (Pente), H for 6 elements (Hex), S for 7 elements (Septem), O for 8 elements (Octo), N for 9 elements (Novem), D for 10 elements (Decem).
Thus, the Nikkor-P Auto 105mm lens is constructed with five lens elements, and the Nikkor-UD Auto consists of eleven elements.
The C-type Nikkors resemble the A-versions, but some or all of their glass elements are multi-coated. Slight cosmetic changes also differentiate the C-type lenses, which have a black finish to their filter ring with the additional "C" after the code letter for the number of elements. The C-types were introduced from 1967 and remained in production into the early 1970s.
Most K-type lenses were fitted with a rubber covered focusing ring, which makes them instantly recognizable from their predecessors. Their depth-of-field rings were usually finished in black, but otherwise their internal construction was the same as the C-types. During 1977, after a relatively short time in production, the K-types were replaced by the AI Nikkors.
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Cannot compare the lens to itself.
A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.
The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.
Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.
Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.
35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.
APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.
Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).
Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.
A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).
This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),
CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.
A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.
A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.
Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.
The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.
Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.
Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.
Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.
The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.
The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.
In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.
The lens was designed for use with 35mm film SLR cameras with the mirror locked in the up position. The lens extended into the SLR's mirror box when mounted. Mirror lock-up must be activated prior to mounting the lens; otherwise its rearmost element would be in the way as the mirror flipped up and down during exposure. A separate optical viewfinder had to be mounted on the accessory shoe to confirm angle of view, because when the mirror is in the up and locked position, the subject is no longer visible through the viewfinder.
The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.
The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.
Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".
There is no helicoid in this lens and everything is in focus from the closest focusing distance to infinity.
Conventional lenses employ an all-group shifting system, in which all lens elements shift during focusing. The IF system, however, shifts only part of the optics during focusing. The advantages of the IF system are:
The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.
The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.
The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.
The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.
The aperture setting is fixed at F/5.6 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.
As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.
Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.
At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.
A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.
Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.
Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.
Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.
A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.
The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.
Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.
Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.
Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.
Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.
Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.