|PC||Perspective Control lens.|
|Production status:||● Discontinued|
|Production type:||Mass production|
|Original name:||Nippon Kogaku PC-NIKKOR 1:3.5 f=35mm|
|System:||● Nikon F (1959)|
|Maximum format:||35mm full frame|
|Mount and Flange focal distance:||Nikon F [46.5mm]|
|Diagonal angle of view:||63.4° (35mm full frame)|
|44° (Nikon F APS-C)|
|Lens construction:||6 elements - 6 groups|
|Number of blades:||6|
|Closest focusing distance:||0.3m|
|Maximum magnification ratio:||<No information>|
|Focusing method:||<No information>|
|Focusing modes:||Manual focus only|
|Manual focus control:||Focusing ring|
|Tilt and Shift mechanism|
|Tilt range:||Not available|
|Maximum diameter x Length:||⌀70×52mm|
|Lens hood:||Screw-type HN-1 (round)|
The Nikkor perspective control lens offers the versatility of a rising and sliding front on a view camera. It provides linearity control of verticals in architectural photography. A micrometer lead-screw control permits moving optics off-center by as much as 11mm. The entire lens mount rotates 360° so correction can be made in any direction. The PC can also be used for exceptionally wide-angle coverage. Maximum aperture f3.5. Pre-set diaphragm. Accepts 52mm screw-in filters.
The great advantage of this lens is that the main section of the lens barrel, together with its focusing and aperture setting mechanisms, can be moved up to 11 mm parallel - with the film plane in any direction - by rotating the knob up to 3 rotations and clamping down. With this lens, it is possible to avoid the image convergence produced when the lens is not parallel to the subject extended horizontally, vertically or in any direction. Hence, the PC-Nikkor is extremely useful in architectural, industrial and commercial photography, where convergence compensation in the enlarging stage is difficult or impossible - such as in color reversal work, in which the subject is usually framed once for all exposures. Also, it makes possible a continuous wide view of two exactly matching pictures by shifting the lens without moving the camera. The PC-Nikkor expands the versatility of the 35 mm camera, and even replaces large format apparatus with "snaking" bellows. In general, the lens does away with the necessity of tilting the camera, or enables it to be tilted less. On many occasions, this makes the difference between acceptable and unaccep- table convergence of verticals.
To make the shift available to all directions, the whole front section, including the shift movement, can be rotated in the lens flange which fits into the camera body. The lens can be rotated through the entire 360° and there are click-stop settings at the twelve 30° intervals. The amount of shift is calibrated in millimeters. It is easy to set the shift to a 0.5 mm accuracy.
Therefore, in addition to the conventional rise, fall and cross movements, an infinite series of diagonal movements can be obtained. This facility to shift is sometimes very convenient; for example, when the positioning of the camera is restricted and the angle of the camera would produce unwanted distortion.
Each of the 30° rotation click-stops is calibrated with a numeral denoting the maximum shift in that direction without vignetting: 11 mm for rise and fall, 8 mm of cross, and 7 mm of diagonal shift. The extent to which the recommended shifts can be exceeded depends on the distribution of important fine detail in the subiect. When the lens is shifted downward, the cut-off at the lower end of the mirror causes considerable vignetting in the viewfinder. This, and other vignetting in the viewfinder at extreme shifts, does not appear on the negative. Therefore, the system shows no vignetting at any aperture or displacement.
The aperture diaphragm is not fully automatic, but is a manually preset type, with the preset ring at the front of the barrel and the stop-down ring immediately behind it. The preset ring and the stop-down ring rotate in the same direction. If manual presetting is not important, it is possible to adjust the preset ring to f/32, and then set the diaphragm with the stop-down ring reading on the preset scale. This aperture scale is duplicated on the other side of the lens front rim, so that settings are easily read with any shift movement. The aperture scale is linear, with a wide scale.
Nikon's first Perspective Control (shift) lens. The front section of the lens can be shifted up to 11mm off the central axis by sliding along on dovetail shaped rails. The lens can be rotated a full 360 degrees with click stops every 30 degrees so that shifting is possible vertically, horizontally, and diagonally. In the latter direction shift is limited to just 7cm in order to prevent vignetting.
The lens lacks Nikon Integrated Coating and suffers from mediocre sharpness and contrast as a result.
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Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.
According to lens-db.com; among lenses designed for the same maximum format and mount.
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Cannot compare the lens to itself.
A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.
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Shift lenses are high-quality lenses, usually wide-angle, that provide a parallel shift facility like the sliding lens panel of professional large-format cameras for correcting converging vertical lines and manipulating the perspective especially for use in architectural and product photography.
Whereas normal lenses designed for 35mm full-frame cameras have an image circle diameter of 43.27mm so that all four corners of the image are inside the image circle, shift lenses provide much larger image circle (60mm or even more). Decentration of the lens is possible within this area.
Vertical shift is the most popular: upward when photographing high buildings, and downward for product shots, so that the camera does not have to be tilted. When the camera is tilted either upward or downward, perpendicular lines are not imaged as perpendicular, but rather converge upward or downward, which is very pronounced in wide-angle shots and can be very irritating.
By using rotation, the direction of the entire lens can be switched.
By using Tilt/Shift rotation, the relationship of the tilt and shift operation directions can be switched from right angle to parallel.
Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.
Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.
35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.
APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.
Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).
Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.
A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).
This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),
CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.
A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.
A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.
Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.
The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.
Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.
Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.
Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.
The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.
The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.
In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.
The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.
The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.
Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".
Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.
The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.
The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.
The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.
The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.
As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.
Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.
At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.
A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.
Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.
Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.
Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.
A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.
The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.
Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.
Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.
Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.
Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.
Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.