|■Nikon NIKKOR-O 21mm F/4 • Pancake lens||M||8 - 4||0.9m||⌀52||1959 ●|
|■Nikon NIKKOR-UD Auto 20mm F/3.5||A||11 - 9||0.3m||⌀72||1967 ●|
|■Nikon NIKKOR 20mm F/4||A||10 - 8||0.3m||⌀52||1974 ●|
|■Nikon AI NIKKOR 20mm F/4||A||10 - 8||0.3m||⌀52||1977 ●|
|■Nikon AI NIKKOR 20mm F/3.5||A||11 - 8||0.3m||⌀52||1977 ●|
|■Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 20mm F/3.5||A||11 - 8||0.3m||⌀52||1981 ●|
|Production status:||● Discontinued|
|Original name:||Nippon Kogaku NIKKOR-O 1:4 f=2.1cm|
|System:||Nikon F (1959)|
|Maximum format:||35mm full frame|
|Mount and Flange focal distance:||Nikon F [46.5mm]|
|Diagonal angle of view:||91.7°|
|Lens construction:||8 elements - 4 groups|
|Closest focusing distance:||0.9m|
|Maximum magnification ratio:||<No data>|
|Focusing modes:||Manual focus only|
|Manual focus control:||Focusing ring|
|Aperture control:||Aperture ring|
|Number of blades:||7 (seven)|
|Maximum diameter x Length:||⌀60×16.5mm|
|Lens hood:||Screw-type HN-14 (round)|
Nowhere is the quality of Nikkor optics better demonstrated than in the critical demands of this extra-wideangle lens. Despite its 92 deg. angle of view, it offers unusual resolution, true color rendition and almost no linear distortion. Click-stops to f 16. Focuses down to 3 feet or 90 cm. Accepts 52 mm screw-in filters. Non-meter coupling. Supplied with these components: leather case and supplementary viewfinder. Deep-seat-mount requires mirror to be locked in "up" position.
Supplied with front and rear caps. Fits Nikon F (with mirror locked up).
Nowhere is the quality of Nikkor optics better demonstrated than in the critical demands of this new extra-wide angle lens. Despite its 92° angle of coverage, it offers unusual resolution, high color correction, and no linear distortion. Features 8-elements. Click-stops to f22. Focuses to 3'. Accepts 52mm screw-in filters.
Despite the extra wide angle, this lens assures high definition all over the picture field without vignetting; astigmatism is especially well-corrected and distortion is reduced to within 1%. Hence, it is especially suited for photographing an extended landscape, architectural interior, etc. or for intentionally exaggerated perspective. It gives such a great depth of field that even at full aperture all the subjects from infinity to 2 meters (about 6 ft) are included within the range of sharpness when the lens is focused to 4 meters (about 12 ft). Owing to its symmetrical design, the high definition of the lens is maintained for close distance photography. With the Bellows Focusing Attachment, this lens can produce an image larger than natural size.
Mirror in the camera must be kept in flip-up position because of the deep-seated mount of the lens, and the Supplementary Viewfinder should be used on the camera shoe.
There are two discontinued types of Supplementary Viewfinders. One has a bakelite base and the other requires the Flash Unit Coupler to attach the finder to the camera.
Pancake lenses get their name due to the thin and flat size. The other distinctive features are fixed focal length and light weight.
First pancake lenses appeared in the 1950s and were standard prime lenses based on the famous Tessar design – a brilliantly simple design which was developed by Paul Rudolph in 1902, patented by Zeiss company and provided a good optical performance.
With the improvement of optical technologies in the 1970s the optical design of pancake lenses became more complicated and the latest generation has overcome the limitations of traditional designs. As a result, pancake lenses are now also available in wide-angle and even short telephoto variations.
Due to the increasing demand for cameras with a compact form factor, pancake lenses are experiencing a second wave of popularity while having reasonable prices, which makes them accessible to a wide range of photographers. Such lenses are especially useful for those who enjoy travel photography.
Genres or subjects of photography (5):
Adaptation to digital SLR cameras:
In order to adapt the lens, the flange focal distance (FFD) of the lens mount must be equal to or greater than the FFD of the camera mount. This lens has the Nikon F mount with a FFD of 46.5mm. This is even shorter than the FFD of Canon EOS digital SLR cameras, which have the shortest FFD of 44mm of any modern digital SLR cameras. Therefore, this lens cannot be adapted to any digital SLR camera.
Recommended slowest shutter speed when shooting static subjects handheld:
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 20mm F/2.8 • ⌀62||Pro||1984 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR 13mm F/5.6||Pro||1975 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 13mm F/5.6||Pro||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 13mm F/5.6||Pro||1982 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR-QD·C Auto 15mm F/5.6||Pro||1973 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR 15mm F/5.6||Pro||1976 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 15mm F/5.6||Pro||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 15mm F/3.5||Pro||1978 ●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 15mm F/3.5||Pro||1981 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR 18mm F/4 • ⌀86||Pro||1974 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 18mm F/4 • ⌀86||Pro||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 18mm F/3.5 • ⌀72||Pro||1981 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR 20mm F/4 • ⌀52||Pro||1974 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 20mm F/4 • ⌀52||Pro||1977 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR-UD Auto 20mm F/3.5 • ⌀72||Pro||1967 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 20mm F/3.5 • ⌀52||Pro||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 20mm F/3.5 • ⌀52||Pro||1981 ●|
|Cosina Voigtlander COLOR-SKOPAR 20mm F/3.5 Aspherical SL II • ⌀52||Pro||2009 ●|
|Cosina Voigtlander COLOR-SKOPAR 20mm F/3.5 Aspherical SL II N • ⌀52||Pro||2012 ●|
|Irix 21mm F/1.4||Pro||2022 ●|
|Kino Precision KIRON 24mm F/2 MC • ⌀55||●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 24mm F/2.8 • ⌀52||1981 ●|
|Nikon AI-S NIKKOR 24mm F/2 • ⌀52||1981 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR-N[·C] Auto 24mm F/2.8 • ⌀52||1967 ●|
|Nikon NIKKOR 24mm F/2.8 • ⌀52||1975 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 24mm F/2.8 • ⌀52||1977 ●|
|Nikon AI NIKKOR 24mm F/2 • ⌀52||1977 ●|
|Samyang 24mm F/1.4 ED AS UMC (Bower, ROKINON, Walimex Pro) • ⌀77||2011 ●|
|Samyang 20mm F/1.8 ED AS UMC (Bower, ROKINON, Walimex Pro) • ⌀77||Pro||2016 ●|
|Sigma MF 18mm F/3.5 ZEN • ⌀72||Pro||1992 ●|
|Sigma MF 24mm F/2.8 II • ⌀52||1986 ●|
|Sigma MF 18mm F/2.8 II • ⌀72||Pro||1984 ●|
|Sigma MF 24mm F/2.8 (XR RIKENON) • ⌀52||1981 ●|
|Sigma MF 18mm F/2.8 (XR RIKENON) • ⌀67||Pro||1980 ●|
|Carl Zeiss Classic Distagon T* 18mm F/3.5 ZE / ZF / ZF.2 / ZK • E82||Pro||2008 ●|
|Carl Zeiss Classic Distagon T* 21mm F/2.8 ZE / ZF / ZF.2 / ZK • E82||Pro||2008 ●|
|ZEISS Milvus Distagon T* 21mm F/2.8 ZE / ZF.2 • E82||Pro||2015 ●|
|ZEISS Milvus Distagon T* 18mm F/2.8 ZE / ZF.2 • E77||Pro||2016 ●|
Offer optical performance similar to AI Nikkors but do not incorporate the automatic maximum-aperture indexing (AI) and Aperture Direct Reading (ADR) features. They are used with stopdown exposure measurement on Nikon cameras. However, most Auto-Nikkors equipped with meter-coupling shoe can be converted to AI operation and full-aperture metering.
Diaphragms - automatic, preset, or manual - of non-AI and AI lens types function in an identical manner with all Nikon-system cameras.
The very first lenses for the Nikon F and the Nikkormat FT/FTN belong to the A-type and can be distinguished by the fact that no screw heads are visible on the lens bayonet ring, and the distance scale was only marked in meters. Later A-type lenses have screw heads protruding through the lens bayonet and a distance scale in both meters and feet. All A-type lenses have a chrome finished filter ring and the designation was engraved with the name "Nikkor", the maximum aperture, and the focal length. Early A-types have the focal length shown in centimeters, whilst on later lenses it is given in millimeters. Lenses having "Auto" are equipped with automatic diaphragms which are coupled directly to the shutter release and mirror action mechanisms.
Several of these lenses were modified by the addition of multi-coating to their glass elements to become C-types.
The code letter after the "Nikkor" engraving is indicative of the number of elements in each lens. The letters are from Latin or Greek: U for 1 element (Uns),B for 2 elements (Bini), T for 3 elements (Tres), Q for 4 elements (Quatuor), P for 5 elements (Pente), H for 6 elements (Hex), S for 7 elements (Septem), O for 8 elements (Octo), N for 9 elements (Novem), D for 10 elements (Decem).
Thus, the Nikkor-P Auto 105mm lens is constructed with five lens elements, and the Nikkor-UD Auto consists of eleven elements.
The C-type Nikkors resemble the A-versions, but some or all of their glass elements are multi-coated. Slight cosmetic changes also differentiate the C-type lenses, which have a black finish to their filter ring with the additional "C" after the code letter for the number of elements. The C-types were introduced from 1967 and remained in production into the early 1970s.
Most K-type lenses were fitted with a rubber covered focusing ring, which makes them instantly recognizable from their predecessors. Their depth-of-field rings were usually finished in black, but otherwise their internal construction was the same as the C-types. During 1977, after a relatively short time in production, the K-types were replaced by the AI Nikkors.
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A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.
The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.
Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.
Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.
35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.
APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.
Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).
Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.
A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).
This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),
CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.
A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.
A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.
Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.
The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.
Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.
Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.
Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.
The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.
The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.
In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.
The lens was designed for use with 35mm film SLR cameras with the mirror locked in the up position. The lens extended into the SLR's mirror box when mounted. Mirror lock-up must be activated prior to mounting the lens; otherwise its rearmost element would be in the way as the mirror flipped up and down during exposure. A separate optical viewfinder had to be mounted on the accessory shoe to confirm angle of view, because when the mirror is in the up and locked position, the subject is no longer visible through the viewfinder.
The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.
The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.
Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".
The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.
The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.
The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.
The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.
The aperture setting is fixed at F/4 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.
As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.
Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.
At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.
A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.
Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.
Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.
Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.
A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.
The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.
Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.
Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.
Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.
Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.
Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.