Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [I]

Wide-angle prime lens • Film era • Discontinued

Abbreviations

ASPH. The lens incorporates aspherical elements.

Model history

Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] [11307, SAWOM / 11308]M8 - 60.70mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] [SAWOO / 11008] [LSM]M8 - 61.00mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] with OVU [11104, SAMWO / 11108]M8 - 60.65mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [II] [11309]M6 - 40.70mE39 1969 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [III] [11309]M6 - 40.70mE39 1973 
Leitz / Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 [IV] [11310, 11311]Pancake lensM7 - 50.70mE39 1980 
Leitz Canada Summicron-M 35mm F/2 "Leica 1913-1983" (200 units) [11310]Pancake lens 1983 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 "Royal-Photo Austria" (102 units) [11311]Pancake lens 1993 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 "LHSA 25th Anniversary" (151 units) [11311]Pancake lens 1993 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [I] [11879, 11882]M7 - 50.70mE39 1997 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "150 Jahre Optik" (30 units) [10481] 1999 
Leica Summicron 35mm F/2 ASPH. [11608] [LSM] 1999 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. for M6 TTL Millennium & "Øresundsbron" (2025 units) [11611] 2000 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. Titanium (500 units) [11609] 2001 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "LHSA 35th Anniversary" (1000 units) [11616] 2003 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Edition Hermès" (500 units) 2003 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. for MP Anthracite (400 units) [11617] 2004 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "60th Anniversary ROK" (60 units) [11641] 2005 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. for M9-P "Grey" (50 units) 2012 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Correspondent" (125 units) 2015 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. Black (500 units) 2015 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Brass Edition 35" (35 units) 2016 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [II] [11673, 11674]M7 - 50.70mE39 2016 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Canada Edition" (25 units) 2017 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Stealth Edition" (125 units) 2018 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. for M10-P Bold Grey (60 units) 2018 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "ASC 100 Edition" (300 units) 2019 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Your Mark" (80 units) 2019 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. "Signature" (50 units) 2019 
Leica APO-Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [11699]M10 - 50.30mE39 2021 

Specification

Fast
1
ASPH
MF
Manual
8 blades
Compact
E39
filters

Optical design:
35mm
F/2
35mm full frame
Leica M
63.4° (35mm full frame)
7 elements in 5 groups
1 ASPH
On Leica M8/M8.2 APS-H [1.33x] cameras:
35mm equivalent focal length:
46.6mm (in terms of field of view)
35mm equivalent speed:
F/2.7 (in terms of depth of field)
Diagonal angle of view:
49.8°
Diaphragm mechanism:
Diaphragm type:
Manual
Aperture control:
Aperture ring
8 (eight)
Focusing:
Coupled to the rangefinder:
Yes
0.7m
1:17.5
Focusing modes:
Manual focus only
Manual focus control:
Focusing tab
Physical characteristics:
255g
⌀53×34.5mm
Accessories:
Screw-type 39mm
12526
14551 (front)
14269 (rear)
14379 (rear)

Sources of data

  • Manufacturer's technical data.
  • Handbook of the LEICA system 2000/2001 (October 2000).

Manufacturer description #1

35 mm Summicron-M f/2 ASPH. - a new top lens for the Leica M (6/97)

The new 35 mm Summicron-M f/2 ASPH is a lens which offers an exceptionally brilliant imaging performance even at full aperture, as well as high resolution across the whole image field. When stopping down to 5.6 this excellent imaging performance is increased even further. The new design therefore fully satisfies the demand for highest optical performance, which the renowned German manufacturer puts to its products.

The new lens replaces the previous 35 mm Summicron-M f/2, which has become a standard focal length for many Leica M photographers. The traditional series, which has been manufactured in various forms since 1958, now includes the latest technologies and is a clear improvement. In addition to the detailed rendition of course and fine structures, with the new 35 mm Summicron-M f/2 ASPH. the absence of distortion and the excellent flatness of field must be emphasized. The high optical performance remains unchanged, even in the close-up range which reaches down to 70 cm. The new 35 mm Summicron-M f/2 ASPH. can now line up in the new generation of lenses for this unique rangefinder system camera, the Leica M.

This exceptional imaging performance with simultaneous compact design could only be reached by using an aspherical lens surface - as is also the case with the 35 mm Summilux-M f/1.4 ASPH. and 24 mm Elmarit-M f/2.8 ASPH.. This aspherical surface is made using a modern "high-precision blank moulding" production method. For this purpose a diamond-turned, ground, and polished die of a ceramic-like material is used. This "stamping die" is the negative form of the exact shape of the final surface of the lens to be produced. The results are continuously checked using special mathematical models for definition of the permissible surface deviations, as well as the required optical measuring systems.

This new lens is designed to go with the different versions of the Leica M6 and is available with black anodized finish or in the classic, silver chromium finish.

Manufacturer description #2

Since the introduction of the first SUMMICRON-M 35 mm in 1958, this category of lenses has enjoyed the greatest popularity and has virtually turned the 35 mm into a standard focal length within the LEICA M system. The lens represents a good combination of optical performance, high speed, reduced weight and competitive price. With the new SUMMICRON-M f/2/35mm ASPH. designed and made by Leica in Germany, the LEICA M system has been augmented to by this clearly improved version of a classic lens.

In comparison to its predecessor SUMMICRON-M f/2/35 mm, which for many years was made in Canada without any change in the optical design, the new lens distinguishes itself through improvements such as a considerable enhancement throughout the entire image field in the brilliance of the image, which means a better reproduction of big structures even at full aperture, as well as a better reproduction of fine details, i.e. the resolution of the image. By stopping down to f/5.6, this performance can be improved even further. When using this aperture, the reproduction of details achieved with the new lens is clearly superior to that obtained with the predecessor lens. Further advantages of the new lens lie in the absence of distorsions and a perfectly flattened field.

At full aperture, the reproduction of contrasts is only slightly lower than that achieved with the outstanding SUMMILUX-M f/1.4/35 mm ASPH. at an aperture of 2.0.

In comparison to the predecessor model system-related vignetting at full aperture was also visibly reduced. This performance can be compared to that of the SUMMILUX-M f/1.4/35 mm ASPH. at an aperture of 2.0. From aperture 4.0 on, artificial vignetting no longer exists.

The high optical performance of the LEICA SUMMICRON-M f/2/35 mm ASPH. remains unchanged even at a close range of up to 0.7 m.

To achieve this combination of outstanding imaging capacity and compact design, it has been absolutely necessary to use an aspherical surface. Like the aspherical surfaces used in the SUMMILUX-M f/1.4/35 mm ASPH. and in the ELMARIT-M f/2.8/24 mm ASPH., this aspherical surface is produced by the state-of-the-art “high-precision blank moulding”. For this purpose a diamond-turned, ground and polished tool made of a ceramic-like material is used. This creates a “stamping die”, which, when reversed, must precisely match the final surface of the lens to be produced. With the help of mathematical models which were developed to define the permissible surface deviations as well as the relevant optical measuring systems, the results are continuously monitored.

The lens has a larger angle of view than the so-called standard focal length of 50 mm, but does not show the marked three-dimensional effect with the exaggerated perspective, typical of wide-angle lenses. These factors allow the new 35 mm lens to be used for a variety of purposes ranging from journalistic and travel documentation to landscape and interior photography as well as snapshots.

In order to avoid disruptive reflexes in the image during unfavourable shooting conditions, for instance when taking photos against the light, the user should always photograph with the lens hood in place. The lens therefore comes with a particularly small, push-on lens hood similar to the much tried lens hood of the predecessor model SUMMICRON f/2/35 mm. Its carefully adapted shape guarantees optimal protection against stray light and ensures that the lens hood does not obstruct the path of light passing through either the lens or the range finder. Thanks to minor modifications in the lens hood, a newly designed protective cover made of a soft plastic material can be used, which is also very comfortable to carry along. The new lens hood can also be used with the foregoing model SUMMICRON-M f/2/35 mm (order number 11310 or 11311). It can be reordered as a replacement (order number 12 526) and comes with the new protective cover.

With a new design of a classic LEICA M lens, Leica now introduces a compact, low-weight lens at an attractive price. The LEICA SUMMICRON-M f/2/35 mm ASPH. meets the highest optical standards and proudly takes its place in the new Leica lens generation.

To match the colours of the LEICA M6, the new lens is available in black anodized as well as in the classic silver chrome finish.

Manufacturer description #3

With superb sharpness, excellent contrast and outstanding resolving power across the entire focusing range, this versatile all-around lens is one of the world’s top high-speed wide-angle lenses. Equipped with the 35mm f/2, a Leica M body becomes an elegant compact camera.

Manufacturer description #4

Excellent sharpness, high contrast and a superb resolving power over the entire focusing range are evident at full aperture. With its aperture stopped down modestly to f/4, this versatile lens delivers a maximum of resolving power and contrast. It is all the more impressive because of its virtually perfect absence of distortion. That makes it a world-class lens among fast wide-angle lenses. Inspite of its high speed and its superb imaging performance, it is surprisingly small. Every Leica M camera fitted with this lens becomes a highly compact and elegant unit.

From the editor

Weight is indicated for the black version of the lens. Chrome version weighs 85g more (340g).

Other wide-angle prime lenses in the Leica M system

Sorted by focal length and speed, in ascending order
Leica M mount (36)
Leica Elmar-M 24mm F/3.8 ASPH. [11648]M8 - 60.70mE46 2008 
Leica Elmarit-M 24mm F/2.8 ASPH. [11878, 11898]M7 - 50.70mE55 1996 
Leica Summilux-M 24mm F/1.4 ASPH. [11601]M10 - 80.70mS.VII 2008 
Leica Summaron-M 28mm F/5.6 [11695]Pancake lensM6 - 41.00mE34 2016 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Elmarit 28mm F/2.8 [I] [11801]M9 - 60.70mE48 1965 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Elmarit 28mm F/2.8 [II] [11801]M8 - 60.70mS.VII 1969 
Leitz / Leitz Canada / Leica Elmarit-M 28mm F/2.8 [III] [11804]M8 - 60.70mE49 1979 
Leica Elmarit-M 28mm F/2.8 [IV] [11809]M8 - 70.70mE46 1993 
Leica Elmarit-M 28mm F/2.8 ASPH. [I] [11606]M8 - 60.70mE39 2006 
Leica Elmarit-M 28mm F/2.8 ASPH. [II] [11677]M8 - 60.70mE39 2016 
Leica Summicron-M 28mm F/2 ASPH. [I] [11604]M9 - 60.70mE46 2000 
Leica Summicron-M 28mm F/2 ASPH. [II] [11672]M9 - 60.70mE46 2016 
Leica Summicron-M 28mm F/2 ASPH. [III] [11618]M9 - 60.40mE46 2023 
Leica Summilux-M 28mm F/1.4 ASPH. [11668]M10 - 70.70mE49 2015 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/3.5 [SOONC-M / 11105, SOONC-MT / 11305]M6 - 41.00mE39 1954 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/3.5 with OVU [SOONC-MW / SOMWO / 11107]M6 - 40.65mE39 1956 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/2.8 [SIMOM / 11306]M6 - 40.70mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/2.8 with OVU [SIMWO / 11106]M6 - 40.65mE39 1958 
Leica Summarit-M 35mm F/2.5 [11643]M6 - 40.80mE39 2007 
Leica Summarit-M 35mm F/2.4 ASPH. [11671, 11679]M6 - 40.80mE46 2014 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] [11307, SAWOM / 11308]M8 - 60.70mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] with OVU [11104, SAMWO / 11108]M8 - 60.65mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [II] [11309]M6 - 40.70mE39 1969 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [III] [11309]M6 - 40.70mE39 1973 
Leitz / Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 [IV] [11310, 11311]Pancake lensM7 - 50.70mE39 1980 
Leica Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [II] [11673, 11674]M7 - 50.70mE39 2016 
Leica APO-Summicron-M 35mm F/2 ASPH. [11699]M10 - 50.30mE39 2021 
Leitz Canada Summilux 35mm F/1.4 [I] [11869, 11870]M7 - 51.00mE41 1960 
Leitz Canada Summilux 35mm F/1.4 [I] with OVU [11871, 11872]M7 - 50.65mE41 1960 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summilux[-M] 35mm F/1.4 [II] [11870]M7 - 51.00mS.VII 1967 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 ASPHERICAL [11873]M9 - 50.70mE46 1989 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 [II] Titanium [11860]M7 - 51.00mS.VII 1992 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 ASPH. [II] [11874, 11883]M9 - 50.70mE46 1994 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 ASPH. [III] [11663, 11675]M9 - 50.70mE46 2010 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 ASPH. [IV] [11726, 11727]M9 - 50.40mE46 2022 
Leica Summilux-M 35mm F/1.4 [I] [11301]M7 - 51.00mE46 2022 

Lenses with similar focal length

Sorted by manufacturer name
Leica M mount (23)
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.2 Aspherical II VMM10 - 70.50m⌀52 2011 
Cosina Voigtlander Color-Skopar 35mm F/2.5 P II VMPancake lensM7 - 50.70m⌀39 2004 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.4 VMM8 - 60.70m⌀43 2008 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 40mm F/1.4 VMM7 - 60.70m⌀43 2004 
Cosina Voigtlander Ultron 35mm F/1.7 Aspherical VMM9 - 70.50m⌀46 2015 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.2 Aspherical VMM10 - 70.70m⌀52 2003 
Cosina Voigtlander Ultron 35mm F/2 Aspherical VM Type 1M8 - 50.58m⌀39 2018 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 40mm F/1.2 Aspherical VMM8 - 60.50m⌀52 2017 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.4 II VMM8 - 60.70m⌀43 2019 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.2 Aspherical III VMM9 - 70.50m⌀52 2020 
Cosina Voigtlander Ultron 35mm F/2 Aspherical VM Type 2M8 - 50.58m⌀39 2021 
Cosina Voigtlander APO-Lanthar 35mm F/2 Aspherical VMM11 - 90.50m⌀49 2021 
Cosina Voigtlander Heliar 40mm F/2.8 Aspherical VMPancake lensM5 - 30.70m⌀34 2022 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.5 Aspherical VM Type 1M9 - 60.50m⌀39 2022 
Cosina Voigtlander Nokton 35mm F/1.5 Aspherical VM Type 2M9 - 60.50m⌀39 2022 
Konica M-Hexanon 35mm F/2M8 - 70.70m⌀46 2001 
Leitz Wetzlar Summicron-C 40mm F/2 [11542]Pancake lensM6 - 40.80mS.5.5 1973 
Leitz Wetzlar Elmarit-C 40mm F/2.8 [11541]M4 - 30.80mS.5.5 1973 
Minolta M-Rokkor 40mm F/2 for CLEPancake lensM6 - 40.80m⌀40.5 1981 
Minolta M-Rokkor 40mm F/2 for CLPancake lensM6 - 40.80m⌀40.5 1973 
Carl Zeiss Biogon T* 35mm F/2 ZMM9 - 60.70mE43 2004 
Carl Zeiss C Biogon T* 35mm F/2.8 ZMM7 - 50.70mE43 2008 
ZEISS Distagon T* 35mm F/1.4 ZMM10 - 70.70mE49 2014 
Leica screw mount (28)
Canon 35mm F/1.5M8 - 41.00m⌀48 1958 
Canon 35mm F/1.8M7 - 41.00mS.VI 1957 
Canon 35mm F/2M7 - 41.00m⌀40 1962 
Canon Serenar 35mm F/2.8 IPancake lensM6 - 41.00mS.VI 1951 
Canon 35mm F/2.8 IIM6 - 41.00m⌀40 1957 
Canon Serenar 35mm F/3.2Pancake lensM6 - 43.5 ft.S.VI 1951 
Canon Serenar 35mm F/3.5M4 - 33.5 ft.S.VI 1950 
Chiyoko Rokkor 35mm F/3.5 [C]M4 - 31.00m⌀34 1956 
Cosina Voigtlander Color-Skopar 35mm F/2.5 P MC LSMPancake lensM7 - 50.90m⌀39 2000 
Cosina Voigtlander Color-Skopar 35mm F/2.5 MC LSMM7 - 50.70m⌀39 2000 
Cosina Voigtlander Ultron 35mm F/1.7 Aspherical LSMM8 - 60.90m⌀39 1999 
Cosina Voigtlander Heliar 40mm F/2.8 Aspherical LSMPancake lensM5 - 30.70m⌀34 2022 
Konica Hexanon 35mm F/2 LSM (1000 units)M7 - 60.90m⌀46 1996 
Konica UC-Hexanon 35mm F/2 LSM (1000 units)Pancake lensM7 - 60.90m⌀43 2001 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/3.5 [SOONC / 11005] (up to s/n 1,423,140)M6 - 41.00mA36 1950 
Leitz Elmar 35mm F/3.5 [EKURZ, EKURZKUP, EKURZCHROM]M4 - 31.00mA36 1930 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/2.8 [SIMOO / 11006]M6 - 41.00mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar / Leitz Canada Summicron 35mm F/2 [I] [SAWOO / 11008]M8 - 61.00mE39 1958 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 35mm F/3.5 [SOONC] (from s/n 1,423,141)M6 - 41.00mE39 1956 
Nikon W-Nikkor[·C] 35mm F/3.5 LSMM4 - 30.90m⌀34.5
Nikon W-Nikkor[·C] 35mm F/2.5 LSMM6 - 40.90m⌀34.5
Nikon W-Nikkor[·C] 35mm F/1.8 LSMM7 - 50.90m⌀43
Rollei HFT Sonnar 40mm F/2.8 LSM (430 units)M5 - 40.70m⌀39 2002 
Sankyo Kohki W-Komura 35mm F/2.8 LSMM6 - 41.00m⌀43
Sankyo Kohki W-Komura 36mm F/1.8 LSMM7 - 51.00m⌀58
Sankyo Kohki W-Komura 35mm F/3.5 LSMM5 - 41.00m⌀34
Jupiter-12 35mm F/2.8
aka ЮПИТЕР-12 35mm F/2.8
M6 - 4⌀40.5 1950 
Mir-1 37mm F/2.8
aka МИР-1 37mm F/2.8
P6 - 50.70m⌀49
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

14551

Replacement lens cap, silver finish, for ELMARIT-M 28mm f/2.8 ASPH., SUMMICRON-M 35mm f/2 ASPH.

14269

Replacement rear cover for Leica M-mount lenses.

14379

Replacement rear cover, plastic, black finish, for Leica M-mount lenses.

Aspherical elements

Aspherical elements (ASPH, XA, XGM) are used in wide-angle lenses for correction of distortion and in large-aperture lenses for correction of spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma, thus ensuring excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. The effect of the aspherical element is determined by its position within the optical formula: the more the aspherical element moves away from the aperture stop, the more it influences distortion; close to the aperture stop it can be particularly used to correct spherical aberration. Aspherical element can substitute one or several regular spherical elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Use of aspherical elements has its downsides: it leads to non-uniform rendering of out-of-focus highlights. This effect usually appears as "onion-like" texture of concentric rings or "wooly-like" texture and is caused by very slight defects in the surface of aspherical element. It is difficult to predict such effect, but usually it occurs when the highlights are small enough and far enough out of focus.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Canon's Super UD, Nikon's Super ED, Pentax' Super ED, Sigma's FLD ("F" Low Dispersion), Sony' Super ED and Tamron's XLD glasses are the highest level low dispersion glasses available with extremely high light transmission. These optical glasses have a performance equal to fluorite glass.

High-refraction low-dispersion elements

High-refraction low-dispersion elements (HLD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

High Index, High Dispersion elements

High Index, High Dispersion elements (HID) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Anomalous partial dispersion elements

Anomalous partial dispersion elements (AD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Fluorite elements

Synthetic fluorite elements (FL) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. Compared with optical glass, fluorite lenses have a considerably lower refraction index, low dispersion and extraordinary partial dispersion, and high transmission of infrared and ultraviolet light. They are also significantly lighter than optical glass.

According to Nikon, fluorite easily cracks and is sensitive to temperature changes that can adversely affect focusing by altering the lens' refractive index. To avoid this, Canon, as the manufacturer most widely using fluorite in its telephoto lenses, never uses fluorite in the front and rear lens elements, and the white coating is applied to the lens barrels to reflect light and prevent the lens from overheating.

Short-wavelength refractive elements

High and specialized-dispersion elements (SR) refract light with wavelengths shorter than that of blue to achieve highly precise chromatic aberration compensation. This technology also results in smaller and lighter lenses.

Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics

Organic Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics material (BR Optics) placed between convex and concave elements made from conventional optical glass provides more efficient correction of longitudinal chromatic aberrations in comparison with conventional technology.

Diffraction elements

Diffraction elements (DO, PF) cancel chromatic aberrations at various wavelengths. This technology results in smaller and lighter lenses in comparison with traditional designs with no compromise in image quality.

High refractive index elements

High refractive index elements (HR, HRI, XR etc) minimize field curvature and spherical aberration. High refractive index element can substitute one or several regular elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Apodization element

Apodization element (APD) is in fact a radial gradient filter. It practically does not change the characteristics of light beam passing through its central part but absorbs the light at the periphery. It sort of softens the edges of the aperture making the transition from foreground to background zone very smooth and results in very attractive, natural looking and silky smooth bokeh.

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Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/2 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.