Leica Summaron-M 28mm F/5.6

Wide-angle prime lens • Digital era

Model history / モデル履歴

Leica Summaron-M 28mm F/5.6Pancake lensM6 - 41mE34 2016 
Leitz Wetzlar Summaron 28mm F/5.6M6 - 41m 1954 

Leica M3

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1954
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No
Dimensions: 138x77x33.5mm
Weight: 580g

Leica M2

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1957
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No
Dimensions: 138x77x33.5mm
Weight: 580g

Leica M4

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1967
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No
Dimensions: 138x77x33.5mm
Weight: 600g

Leica M5

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1971
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1/2 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Dimensions: 155x84x36mm
Weight: 685g

Leica M4-2

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1978
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No

Leica M4-P

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1981
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No

Leica M6

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1984
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Dimensions: 138x77x33.5mm
Weight: 585g

Leica M6 TTL

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: 1998
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)

Leica M7

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: Feb 2002
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 138x79.5x38mm
Weight: 610g

Leica MP

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: Mar 2003
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Dimensions: 138x77x38mm
Weight: 585g

Leica M-A (typ 127)

35mm MF film rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2014
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Mechanical
Speeds: 1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure metering: No
Dimensions: 138x77x38mm
Weight: 578g

Leica M9

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2009
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5212 × 3472 - 18 MP
Sensor type: CCD
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x37mm
Weight: 585g

Leica M9-P

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Jun 2011
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5212 × 3472 - 18 MP
Sensor type: CCD
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x37mm
Weight: 585g

Leica M Monochrom (typ 246)

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: May 2012
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 60 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 680g

Leica M (typ 240)

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2012
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 60 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 680g

Leica M-E (typ 220)

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2012
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5212 × 3472 - 18 MP
Sensor type: CCD
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x37mm
Weight: 585g

Leica M-P (typ 240)

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Aug 2014
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 60 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 680g

Leica M Edition 60

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2014
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 60 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 720g

Leica M (typ 262)

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Nov 2015
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 60 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 600g

Leica M10

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Jan 2017
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3984 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 8 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x38.5mm
Weight: 660g

Leica M10-P

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Aug 2018
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3984 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 8 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x38.5mm
Weight: 675g

Leica M10-D

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Oct 2018
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3984 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 8 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x37.9mm
Weight: 660g

Leica M (typ 240) E Edition

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Jun 2019
Mount: Leica M
Format: 35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5976 × 3992 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80x42mm
Weight: 680g

Leica M10 Monochrom

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Jan 2020
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Resolution: 7864 × 5200 - 41 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 16 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x38.5mm
Weight: 675g

Leica M10-R

35mm MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Jul 2020
Mount: Leica M
Format: 36 × 24mm
Resolution: 7864 × 5200 - 41 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 16 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 139x80x38.5mm
Weight: 675g

Leica M8

APS-H MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2006
Mount: Leica M
Format: 27 × 18mm - 1.33x
Resolution: 3936 × 2630 - 10 MP
Sensor type: CCD
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80.2x36.9mm
Weight: 590g

Leica M8.2

APS-H MF digital rangefinder camera

Announced: Sep 2008
Mount: Leica M
Format: 27 × 18mm - 1.33x
Resolution: 3936 × 2630 - 10 MP
Sensor type: CCD
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 32 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Image stabilizer: -
Dimensions: 138.6x80.2x36.9mm
Weight: 600g

Designed for / のために設計された

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Specification / 仕様

Production status and name / 生産状況と名称
Announced / 発表: October 2016
Production status / 生産状況: In production
Order No. / 注文番号。: 11695
Original name / 元の名前: LEICA SUMMARON-M 1:5.6/28
Optical design / 光学設計
Maximum format / 最大フォーマット: 35mm full frame
Mount / マウント: Leica M
Diagonal angle of view / 対角画角: 75.4° (35mm full frame)
60.3° (Leica M APS-H)
Lens construction / レンズ構造: 6 elements - 4 groups
Diaphragm mechanism / ダイヤフラムメカニズム
Diaphragm type / ダイヤフラムタイプ: Manual
Number of blades / 絞り羽根の数: 8
Focusing / フォーカシング
Coupled to the rangefinder / 距離計に結合: Yes
Closest focusing distance / 最短撮影距離: 1m (coupled focusing)
Maximum magnification ratio / 最大倍率: 1:33.4 at the closest focusing distance
Focusing method / フォーカシング方法: <No information>
Focusing modes / フォーカシングモード: Manual focus only
Manual focus control / マニュアルフォーカス制御: Focusing lever
Physical characteristics / 体格的特徴
Weight / 重量: 165g
Maximum diameter x Length / 最大直径x長さ: ⌀51×18mm
Weather sealing / ウェザーシーリング: -
AquaDura coating: -
Accessories / 付属品
Filters / フィルタ: Screw-type 34mm
Lens hood / レンズフード: Slip-on (rectangular)

Manufacturer description #1

The Return of a Classic:

The Ultra-Compact LEICA SUMMARON-M 28 mm f/5.6 wide-angle lens for Unobtrusive Reportage Photography with a Vintage Look

October 19, 2016 - With the Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6, Leica Camera expands the lens portfolio of the Leica M rangefinder system with the modern reincarnation of a classic Leica lens. First introduced as a screw mount lens in 1955, the predecessor of this new lens is still one of the most compact wide-angle lenses in the Leica M-System and is famed for its characteristic visual signature. The new Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 takes its lead from the classically compact construction of its ancestor and brings the unique, analog look of its pictures into the age of digital photography.

The optical design and mechanical construction of the Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 are identical to those of its predecessor, which was manufactured at the Leitz factory in Wetzlar until 1963. The perfect fusion of the latest optical developments, such as the highest quality finishing and manufacturing techniques, with this classic optical design make this new edition of the Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 much more than a reconstruction of an existing lens. While only slightly modernizing the shape and design of the lens, the new version of the Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 is reduced to the essentials but loses none of the character of its legendary ancestor. Its exceptionally short length of less than two centimeters makes it incredibly unobtrusive, and together with the inherent unassuming nature of a Leica M it is an ideal lens for street photography. The combination of a clearly laid out depth of field scale and long focus throw allow for very precise and easy zone focusing.

The optical design of 6 elements in 4 groups, arranged symmetrically around the iris of the new Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6, is identical to that of its ancestor. The historic optical design of the original lens has remained completely unchanged. When shot at wide-open aperture, the new Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 renders subjects with rich contrast across nearly the entire image field. The combination of a large depth of field, natural contrast rendition, excellent resolution of details and a slight visible vignetting create a unique visual signature, and lend pictures a special classic look reminiscent of earlier days of analog photography.

The outward appearance of the new Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 has been harmonized with the contemporary look and mechanics of the current portfolio of Leica M-Lenses. This is exemplified in the Leica M bayonet mount with 6-bit coding, the shape of the focusing lock button, the diameter of the aperture ring and the style of the knurling on the barrel and rings. The style and construction of the lens hood reflects the original, and recalls memories of the beginnings of rangefinder photography. It is machined from solid brass and finished in an elaborate manufacturing process.

As is the case for all other Leica lenses, the Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 was designed and developed by the precision engineers and optical specialists in Wetzlar. As a product made to stand the test of time with enduring value, the lens is made in Germany from only the finest materials, and assembled entirely by hand. The combination of cutting-edge technologies and painstaking manufacturing processes guarantees consistently excellent quality and long-lasting reliability.

Customers wishing to purchase a Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 lens must place a pre-order with a Leica Store, Boutique or Dealer. Deliveries will follow according to the sequence in which the orders are received. Due to the strong demand, long delivery times must be taken into account, especially in the first few months.

Manufacturer description #2

This Leica Summaron 28mm f/5.6 is a replica of the model originally introduced in 1955 at the Leitz factory in Wetzlar and famed for its characteristic visual signature. With its 6 lens elements arranged strictly symmetrically around the aperture in 4 groups, it has the same optical design. Its extremely compact mechanical construction also corresponds to the original. Unlike this, however, the current model is equipped with the M bayonet including 6 bit code. Furthermore, various external details have been adapted to the appearance of the current M lenses, for example the shape of the focus unlock button, the diameter of the aperture ring and the knurling. The style and construction of the lens hood reflects the original.

Even when fully open, the lens is characterized by high-contrast rendering in large areas of the field of view. Stopping down to 11 greatly improves the imaging performance in the corners of the picture. Although stopping down further enhances the picture corners even more, this is at the expense of the overall contrast, i.e. the imaging performance is more even overall. When the aperture is open, vignetting is max., i.e. in the image corners, approx. 2.5 aperture stages. By stopping down to 8 vignetting can be reduced to approx. 1.8 aperture stages. Distortion is negligible.

Through its combination of extreme depth of field, natural contrast, excellent rendition of details and visible vignetting, the lens gives images a unique character. Pictures made with the Summaron-M stand out from all others with a look reminiscent of analogue photography.

Due to its imaging properties and its focal length, the new edition of the Leica Summaron 28mm f/5.6 is suitable for quick and discreet photography, in other words spontaneous snapshots. Its extremely small dimensions together with the camera make an extremely manageable unit that is easy to carry. The combination of a clearly laid out depth of field scale and long focus throw allow for very precise and easy zone focusing.

Manufacturer description #3

The Leica M can be used with a multitude of lenses far beyond those available from the current portfolio. Photographers frequently use lenses with a “vintage” signature to achieve particular effects that are otherwise difficult to reproduce, even with the most modern digital post-processing software. The Summaron wide-angle, now more than 50 years old, is a particularly popular and compact lens that has been recreated with an M-bayonet mount, 6-bit coding, and a slightly revised design.

The Summaron-M is modelled on a screw mount lens produced at the Leitz factory in Wetzlar from 1955 to 1963. Its unmistakable signature is almost impossible to reproduce by digital means and makes the lens a true classic; reborn today in a revised edition with identical optical properties. The fact that this is no simple reconstruction is obvious at first glance: the design of the Summaron-M has been refined down to the essentials, without losing any of the character of its legendary ancestor.

Through its combination of extreme depth of field, natural contrast, excellent rendition of details and visible vignetting, the lens gives images a unique character. Pictures made with the Summaron-M stand out from all others, with a look reminiscent of analogue photography.

The Summaron-M is the smallest M-System lens. With an overall length of less than 2 cm it is incredibly discreet, making it perfect for street photography. The combination of a clearly laid out depth of field scale and long focus throw allows particularly precise pre-focusing. In addition, the enormous depth of field makes it ideal for taking advantage of hyperfocal distance focusing and shooting from the hip at a speed no autofocus system can match.

The lens hood conjures up memories of the early days of rangefinder photography. Its design, and the meticulous manufacturing processes that went into its construction, have been recreated to match the historic ancestry of the Summaron-M. The lens hood is first machined from solid brass and then given its ultimate form by a turning and bending process. The specialized turning process also cuts the numerous grooves into the inner surface of the lens hood.

The optical design of 6 elements in 4 groups arranged symmetrically around the iris of the Leica Summaron-M 28 mm f/5.6 is identical to that of its ancestor. In contrast to the legendary classic, the new model features an M-bayonet mount with 6-bit coding to enable identification of the lens by the camera.

Typical application / 典型的なアプリケーション

landscapes, interiors, buildings, cityscapes, travel

Cosina Voigtlander Color-Skopar 28mm F/3.5 LTM

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35mm full frame

43.27 24 36
  • Dimensions: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm

Pancake lens

Pancake lenses get their name due to the thin and flat size. The other distinctive features are fixed focal length and light weight.

First pancake lenses appeared in the 1950s and were standard prime lenses based on the famous Tessar design – a brilliantly simple design which was developed by Paul Rudolph in 1902, patented by Zeiss company and provided a good optical performance.

With the improvement of optical technologies in the 1970s the optical design of pancake lenses became more complicated and the latest generation has overcome the limitations of traditional designs. As a result, pancake lenses are now also available in wide-angle and even short telephoto variations.

Due to the increasing demand for cameras with a compact form factor, pancake lenses are experiencing a second wave of popularity while having reasonable prices, which makes them accessible to a wide range of photographers. Such lenses are especially useful for those who enjoy travel photography.

Travellers' choice

Note

Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.

One of the best wide-angle prime lenses

According to lens-db.com; among lenses designed for the same maximum format and mount.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Quality control issues

The manufacturer of this lens does not provide adequate quality control. If you do decide to purchase this lens, do not order it online, but choose the best copy available in the store. In any case, there may also be problems with the build quality, and warranty repairs can take months.

Model produced in a small batch. It is collectible and can only be found on the secondary market.

Unique Leica Look

Leica lenses are one-of-a-kind optical masterpieces that are impressive because of their unique Leica Look. This is ensured through exceptional optical design combined with selected materials and the highest quality standards.

Leica lenses reveal their full potential only when mounted on Leica cameras, since only these have sensors precisely matched to their optical characteristics.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Classic focal length

28mm is the classic focal length of wide-angle lenses for 35mm full-frame cameras. The field of view is not as wide as with 24-25mm lenses, but noticeably wider than with 35mm lenses. In general, this is a fairly compromise focal length: lenses with focal lengths of 24-25mm are better suited for shooting architecture, and ultra-high speed is quite rare in this class of lenses. On the other hand, due to the moderate focal length, aberrations are corrected better than in lenses with focal lengths of 24-25mm.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance from the lens mount to the film or sensor can also be different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Electromagnetic diaphragm control system

Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.

Convex protruding front element

The convex front element protrudes from the lens barrel, making it impossible to use filters.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.