Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Spiegelobjektiv 1000mm F/5.6

Super telephoto prime lens • Film era • Discontinued

Model history (2)

Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Spiegelobjektiv 1000mm F/5.6--4 - 316.00m-- 1961 
Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Prakticar 1000mm F/5.6 (106 units)--4 - 316.00m--

Features highlight

6x6
M/R
MF
Fixed
Built-in filters

Specification

Production details:
Announced:1961
Production status: Discontinued
Original name:Carl Zeiss Jena Spiegelobjektiv 5,6/1000
System:Praktisix/Pentacon six (1956)
Optical design:
Focal length:1000mm
Speed:F/5.6
Maximum format:Medium format 6x6
Mount and Flange focal distance:Praktisix (Pentacon Six) [74mm]
Diagonal angle of view:4.5°
Lens construction:4 elements in 3 groups
Diaphragm mechanism:
Diaphragm type:Fixed
Aperture control:None
Focusing:
Closest focusing distance:16m
Magnification ratio:<No data>
Focusing modes:Manual focus only
Manual focus control:<No data>
Physical characteristics:
Weight:14000g
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀?×512mm
Accessories:
Filters:Removable front filters are not accepted
Built-in Clear, N1 - 0.5, G2, O1, R1, GR1 (part of the lens optical system)
Lens hood:Screw-type round
Teleconverters:<No data>
Sources of data:
1. Manufacturer's technical data.
2. aus Jena - Photoobjektive für Exakta und Exa (1961).
3. Fotoobjektive aus Jena für Exakta, Exa II, Exa I (1966).
4. Photographic lenses for Exakta, Exa II, Exa I (1966).

Manufacturer description #1

SPIEGELOBJEKTIV 5,6/1000

Spezialobjektiv mit extrem langer Brennweite

- mit relativ großer Öffnung

- mit Wechseladapter

- mit eingebautem Filterrevolver

- für die 60 mm x 60 mm-Spiegelreflexkamera Pentaconsix (Anlagemaß 74,0 mm) und für Kleinbild-Spiegelreflexkameras mit Praktica-Schraubfassung M 42 x 1 (Anlagemaß 45,5 mm); mit Exakta-Bajonettfassung (Anlagemaß 44,7 mm) und mit Praktina-Steckbajonettfassung (Anlagemaß 50,0 mm)

Das SPIEGELOBJEKTIV 5,6/1000 mm ist ein Hochleistungsobjektiv für die mannigfaltigen Aufgaben von Wissenschaft und Forschung, aber auch für die dokumentarische Reportage. Bei der Konstruktion von Objektiven mit extrem langer Brenn-weite bietet die Spiegel-Linsen-Kombination gegenüber normalen Linsen-Kombinationen eine Reihe von Vorteilen. Es kann nicht nur das Öffnungsverhältnis relativ groß gehalten werden, sondern die optimale Bildleistung wird schon mit voller Öffnung erreicht.

Das SPIEGELOBJEKTIV 5,6/1000 mm zählt zu den lichtstärksten Objektiven in diesem Brennweitenbereich. Spiegelobjektive haben keine Blende. Der Einbau einer solchen wäre nicht mit den Vorteilen verbunden (größere Schärfentiefe, bessere Bild-leistung), wie dies bei herkömmlichen Objektiven der Fall ist.

***

MIRROR LENS 5.6/1000

Special lens with extremely long focal length

- with a relatively large opening

- with interchangeable adapter

- with built-in filter turret

- for the 60 mm x 60 mm Pentaconsix SLR camera (flange focal distance of 74.0 mm) and for 35mm SLR cameras with Praktica screw mount M 42 x 1 (flange focal distance of 45.5 mm); with Exakta bayonet mount (flange focal distance of 44.7 mm) and with Praktina breech-lock bayonet mount (flange focal distance of 50.0 mm)

The MIRROR LENS 5.6/1000 mm is a high-performance lens for the diverse tasks of science and research, but also for documentary reports. When designing lenses with extremely long focal lengths, the mirror-lens combination offers a number of advantages over normal lens combinations. Not only can the aperture ratio be kept relatively large, but the optimal image performance is achieved even at full aperture.

The MIRROR LENS 5.6/1000 mm is one of the brightest lenses in this focal length range. Mirror lenses have no aperture. Installing one would not offer the advantages (greater depth of field, better image performance) as is the case with conventional lenses.

Manufacturer description #2

Das seit einigen Jahren zur Auslieferung kommende Spiegelobjektiv 4/500 mm hat sich in der Praxis ausgezeichnet bewährt. Die vorzügliche Bildleistung in Verbindung mit der für f=500 mm hohen Lichtstärke 1:4 führten zu ausgezeichneten Aufnahmeergebnissen, vor allem bei solchen Anlässen, wo die herkömmlichen Fernobjektive gleicher oder ähnlicher Brennweite nur unbefriedigende Ergebnisse zeigten oder versagten.

Die Erfolge, die namhafte Tierphotographen, Zoologen, Meteorologen und andere Wissenschaftler sowie anspruchsvolle Amateure mit dem Spiegelobjektiv 4/500 mm erzielten, aber auch der oft geäußerte Wunsch nach einem Spiegelobjektiv noch längerer Brennweite veranlaßten uns zur Konstruktion des Spiegelobjektivs 5,6/1000 mm. Dieses ist sowohl für einäugige Reflexkameras 60 mm x 60 mm wie auch für Kleinbildreflexkameras vom Typ Exakta-Varex, Praktina, Pentacon und Praktica bestimmt. Es besteht aus zwei vorderen Korrektionslinsen, zwei Spiegeln und einer Feldlinse aus zwei verkitteten Linsen. Die effektive relative Öffnung 1:5,6 ist im Hinblick auf die extrem lange Brennweite relativ groß. Die Brennweite von 1000 mm ergibt beim Format 60 mm x 60 mm eine 12,5fach größere Abbildung gegenüber der Standardbrennweite 80 mm und beim Format 24 mm x 36 mm eine 20fach größere Abbildung gegenüber der Standardbrennweite 50 mm. Der Bildwinkel beträgt 5° für das Format 60 x 60 und 2,5° für das Format 24 x 36.

Die Bildgüte ist trotz der langen Brennweite hervorragend. Die Auflösung entspricht für das Format 60 x 60 der des Jena-Bm 2,8/80 mm und für das Format 24 x 36 der des Jena-T 2,8,/50 mm. Das Spiegelobjektiv 5,6/1000 mm besitzt ebenso wie das Spiegelobjektiv 4/500 mm keine Blende. Infolge der besonderen Konstruktion dieses Objektivs ist die Verwendung einer Blende nicht mit den Vorteilen verbunden, wie dies bei normalen Linsenkonstruktionen der Fall ist. Einmal läßt sich durch Abblenden die bereits vorhandene optimale Schärfe nicht weiter steigern — es würde im Gegenteil eine Minderung derselben durch Beugungserscheinungen eintreten — , zum anderen würde auch die Schärfentiefe nicht beeinflußt werden, weil beim Spiegelobjektiv die Eintrittspupille ein Kreisring ist und daher nicht die Gesetzmäßigkeiten wie für eine normale optische Konstruktion gelten. Für eine genaue Abstufung der Belichtungszeit bei Farbaufnahmen kann man das zum eingebauten Filtersatz gehörende Graufilter N1 - 0,5 benutzen, das eine feinere Unterteilung der Belichtungszeitensprünge ermöglicht.

Das Spiegelobjektiv 5,6/1000 mm ist mit einem eingebauten Filterrevolver mit fünf verschiedenen Filtern und einer klaren Planglasscheibe ausgestattet. Diese gleicht die optische Weglänge bei Nichtgebrauch der Filter aus.

Die Entfernungsteilung erlaubt Aufnahmen von Unendlichkeit bis 16 m. Für die Anpeilung des Objektes ist ein Grobvisier angebracht, das besonders bei Kleinbildaufnahmen die Motiverfassung erleichtert. Das Objektiv ist kurz und gedrungen gebaut, die optische Baulänge beträgt 406 mm = 42 % der Brennweite.

Bedienungshinweise

Das Spiegelobjektiv 5,6/1000 mm soll nur in Verbindung mit einem sehr stabilen Stativ, dessen Kopf einen drehbaren 3/8"-Normgewindezapfen aufweist, benutzt werden. Für die Anwendung an Kleinbildreflexkameras vom Typ Exakta-Varex, Praktina, Pentacon und Praktica sind Übergangsringe vorgesehen, die sich mit Steckbajonett am Objektiv befestigen lassen. Diese Übergangsringe werden zum Objektiv mitgeliefert.

Die Fokussierung geschieht mit dem rechten Einstellknopf. Vor der Scharfeinstellung wird das Objekt zweckmäßig mit dem Grobvisier auf der Oberseite des Objektivs angepeilt. Zum Einstellen der Bildschärfe ist der links befindliche Klemmhebel durch Hochdrücken zu lösen. Nach erfolgter Einstellung wird dieser durch Friktion festgehalten.

Die im Revolver fest eingebauten Filter bringt man durch Drehen des linken Einstellknopfes (in Pfeilrichtung) in den Strahlengang, dabei ist der Drehknopf zunächst leicht anzuheben und dann nach links zu drehen (Rechtsdrehen des Knopfes ist nicht möglich). Nach einer halben Umdrehung tritt selbsttätig eine Rastung ein, hiermit ist das jeweils dem Index gegenüberstehende Filter vorgeschaltet.

Reihenfolge der Filter - Verlängerungsfaktor

1. Planglas klar - 1

2. Filter N1 - 0,5 = Neutralgrau mit 25%iger Absorption - 1,5

3. Filter G2 = Gelb-dunkel - etwa 2

4. Filter O1 = Orange - etwa 2,5

5. Filter R1 = Rot-hell - etwa 10

6. Filter GR1 = Gelbgrün - etwa 2,5

Make und Gewicht

Gesamtbaulänge

bei Format 60 mm x 60 mm - 465 mm

bei Format 24 mm x 36 mm (Exakta-Varex) - 494 mm

bei Format 24 mm x 36 mm (Praktina) - 496 mm

bei Format 24 mm x 36 mm (Pentacon, Praktica) - 495 mm

(alle Längen mit Sonnenblende)

Größter Durchmesser (ohne Fuß) - 240 mm

Schnittweite (s') - 80,48 mm.

Gewicht - etwa 14 kg.

***

The 4/500 mm mirror lens, which has been available for delivery for several years, has proven itself excellently in practice. The excellent image performance in conjunction with the high speed of 1:4 for f=500 mm led to excellent shooting results, especially on occasions where conventional long-distance lenses of the same or similar focal length only showed unsatisfactory results or failed.

The successes that well-known animal photographers, zoologists, meteorologists and other scientists as well as demanding amateurs achieved with the 4/500 mm mirror lens, but also the often expressed desire for a mirror lens with an even longer focal length, led us to design the 5.6/1000 mm mirror lens. This is intended for 60 mm x 60 mm single-lens reflex cameras as well as for 35mm reflex cameras of the Exakta-Varex, Praktina, Pentacon and Praktica types. It consists of two front correction lenses, two mirrors and a field lens made of two cemented lenses. The effective relative aperture of 1:5.6 is relatively large considering the extremely long focal length. The focal length of 1000 mm results in an image that is 12.5 times larger than the standard focal length of 80 mm for the 60 mm x 60 mm format and 20 times larger than the standard focal length of 50 mm for the 24 mm x 36 mm format. The image angle is 5° for the 60 x 60 format and 2.5° for the 24 x 36 format.

The image quality is excellent despite the long focal length. The resolution corresponds to that of the Jena-Bm 2.8/80 mm for the 60 x 60 format and to that of the Jena-T 2.8/50 mm for the 24 x 36 format. The 5.6/1000 mm mirror lens, like the 4/500 mm mirror lens, has no aperture. Due to the special design of this lens, the use of an aperture does not come with the benefits of normal lens designs. On the one hand, the already existing optimal sharpness cannot be further increased by stopping down - on the contrary, it would be reduced due to diffraction phenomena - and on the other hand, the depth of field would not be influenced because the entrance pupil of the mirror lens is a circular ring and therefore does not follow the same laws apply to a normal optical construction. For a precise gradation of the exposure time for color photographs, you can use the N1 - 0.5 gray filter that is part of the built-in filter set, which enables a finer adjustment of the exposure time.

The 5.6/1000mm mirror lens is equipped with a built-in filter turret with five different filters and a clear flat glass plate. It compensates the length of the optical path when the filters are not in use.

The distance scale allows shooting from infinity up to 16 m. A coarse sight is attached to aim at the object, which makes it easier to capture the subject, especially when taking 35mm images. The lens is short, the optical length is 406 mm = 42% of the focal length.

Operating instructions

The 5.6/1000 mm mirror lens should only be used in conjunction with a very stable tripod whose head has a rotatable 3/8" standard threaded pin. For use on 35mm reflex cameras of the Exakta-Varex, Praktina, Pentacon and Praktica types adapter rings are provided, which can be attached to the lens using a plug-in bayonet. These adapter rings are included with the lens.

Focusing is done with the right adjustment knob. Before focusing, it is advisable to focus on the object using the coarse sight on the top of the lens. To adjust the image sharpness, release the clamping lever on the left by pushing it up. Once adjusted, it is held in place by friction.

The filters, which are permanently installed in the revolver, are brought into the light path by turning the left adjustment knob (in the direction of the arrow). The knob must first be lifted slightly and then turned to the left (turning the knob to the right is not possible). After half a turn, a detent occurs automatically.

Order of filters - Exposure factor

1. Clear glass plate - 1

2. Filter N1 - 0.5 = Neutral gray with 25% absorption - 1.5

3. Filter G2 = Dark-yellow - about 2

4. Filter O1 = Orange - about 2.5

5. Filter R1 = Light-red - about 10

6. Filter GR1 = Yellow-Green - about 2.5

Make and weight

Overall length

for 60 mm x 60 mm format - 465 mm

for 24 mm x 36 mm format (Exakta-Varex) - 494 mm

for 24 mm x 36 mm format (Praktina) - 496 mm

for 24 mm x 36 mm format (Pentacon, Praktica) - 495 mm

(all lengths with shade)

Largest diameter (without tripod foot) - 240 mm

Back focal length (s') - 80,48 mm.

Weight - approximately 14 kg.

Manufacturer description #3

Wechseladapter ermöglichen die Objektive ab 135 mm Brennweite mit mehreren Aufnahmegeräten zu benutzen. Das erspart den Kauf und den Transport zusätzlicher langbrennweitiger Objektive für die zweite oder gar dritte Kamera. Für sie ist lediglich ein preisgünstiger und leichter Wechseladapter nötig. Die ZEISS-Objektive SONNAR 2,8/180 und 4/300 sowie das Spiegelobjektiv 5,6/1000 sind mit Wechseladapter der Kleinbildkameras ausgerüstet, werden jedoch für die PENTACON six TL und PRAKTISIX ohne diesen Wechseladapter benutzt.

Die Objektive SONNAR 2,8/180 und 4/300 können mit einem Elektrik-Adapter für die elektrische Blendenwertübertragung der dafür vorgesehenen PRAKTICA-Typen ergänzt werden.

***

Interchangeable adapters enable the lenses with a focal length of 135 mm or more to be used with multiple recording devices. This saves you from buying and transporting additional long focal length lenses for the second or even third camera. All you need is an inexpensive and lightweight interchangeable adapter. The ZEISS SONNAR 2.8/180 and 4/300 lenses as well as the mirror lens 5.6/1000 are equipped with an interchangeable adapter for the 35mm cameras, but are used on the PENTACON six TL and PRAKTISIX without this interchangeable adapter.

The SONNAR 2.8/180 and 4/300 lenses can be supplemented with an electrical adapter for the electrical aperture value transmission of the PRAKTICA types intended for this purpose.

From the Monthly Abstract Bulletin from the Kodak Research Laboratories (1961)

A new long-focus mirror lens designed for use with negatives 6 by 6 cm. or smaller, introduced by VEB Carl Zeiss, in Jena, has a focal length of 40 in. (1000 mm.) and an aperture of f/5.6. It is only 16 in. long and weighs 26 1/2 lb.

From the Photographic Abstracts (1964)

An f/5.6, 1,000 mm. catadioptric objective is made by Carl Zeiss Jena for mirror cameras with frame sizes of 60 x 60 mm. and 24 x 36 mm. The angle of field of the image is 5° for a frame size of 60 x 60 mm. and 2.5° for a frame size of 24 x 36 mm. The objective does not have a diaphragm and is provided with a rotating filter holder.

Typical characteristics of mirror (reflex) lenses

  • Catadioptric system consisting of curved mirrors and optical glass;
  • Much shorter, lighter and less expensive designs than conventional super telephoto lenses;
  • Outstanding correction of chromatic aberrations;
  • Since the aperture is fixed, neutral density filters are used to obtain a smaller aperture;
  • Doughnut-shaped out-of-focus highlights.

From the editor

The lens had a Praktisix (Pentacon Six) bayonet mount, but interchangeable adapters were available for Exakta-Varex, Praktina, Pentacon / Praktica 35mm SLR cameras.

The overall length is indicated with a lens hood.

Lenses with similar focal length

Praktisix (Pentacon Six) mount (1)
Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Prakticar 1000mm F/5.6 (106 units)--4 - 316.00m--
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/5.6 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.