Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Sonnar 180mm F/2.8 [MC]

Short telephoto prime lens • Film era • Discontinued

Abbreviations

MC Multi-layer anti-reflection coating is applied to the surfaces of lens elements. This anti-reflection coating increases light transmission, eliminates flare and ghosting, and maintains color consistence among all lens models.

Features highlight

6x6
Fast
MF
Auto
E86
filters

Specification

Production details:
Announced:1963
Production status: Discontinued
Original name:Carl Zeiss Jena Sonnar 2,8/180
Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Sonnar 2,8/180
CARL ZEISS JENA DDR MC SONNAR 2,8/180
System:Praktisix/Pentacon six (1956)
Optical design:
Focal length:180mm
Speed:F/2.8
Maximum format:Medium format 6x6
Mount and Flange focal distance:Praktisix (Pentacon Six) [74mm]
Diagonal angle of view:24.6°
Lens construction:5 elements in 3 groups
Diaphragm mechanism:
Diaphragm type:Automatic
Aperture control:Aperture ring (Manual settings only)
Number of blades:7 (seven)
Focusing:
Closest focusing distance:<No data>
Magnification ratio:<No data>
Focusing modes:Manual focus only
Manual focus control:Focusing ring
Physical characteristics:
Weight:1100g
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀?×122mm
Accessories:
Filters:Screw-type 86mm
Lens hood:95mm - Screw-type round (with adapter M86/M95)
Teleconverters:<No data>
Sources of data:
1. aus Jena - Fotoobjektive mit automatischer Springblende (ASB) für Exakta und Exa (1964).
2. aus Jena - Photographic lenses with automatic diaphragm (ASB) for Exakta and Exa (1964).
3. Fotoobjektive aus Jena für Exakta, Exa II, Exa I (1966).
4. Photographic lenses for Exakta, Exa II, Exa I (1966).
5. Carl Zeiss Jena / Pentacon - Objektive für Spiegelreflexkameras (1973).
6. Carl Zeiss Jena / Pentacon - Objektive für Spiegelreflexkameras (1978).
7. Carl Zeiss Jena / Pentacon - Objektive für Spiegelreflexkameras (1979).

Manufacturer description #1

Ein Zusatzobjektiv mit langer Brennweite

- mit großer Öffnung

- mit Wechseladapter

- mit Mehrfachbeschichtung (MC)

- mit Blendautomatik für die 60 mm x 60 mm Spiegelreflexkamera Pentaconsix (Anlagemaß 74,0 mm) und für Kleinbild-Spiegelreflexkameras mit Praktica-Schraubfassung M 42 x 1 (Anlagemaß 45,5 mm) oder mit Exakta-Bajonettfassung (Anlagemaß 44,7 mm)

- mit elektrischer Blendenwertübertragung für die Praktica LLC, VLC, PLC 2, VLC 2, EE 2

Das MC-S 2,8/180 mm ist für Tier- und Sportaufnahmen sowie Reportagen vorgesehen. Die für diese Brennweite außergewöhnlich große Öffnung 1:2,8 erlaubt dabei Farb- und Schwarzweiß-Aufnahmen auch bei schlechter Beleuchtung. Die Bildleistung ist schon bei voller Öffnung sehr gut. Das MC-S 2,8/180 mm eignet sich aber auch für Landschaftsfernaufnahmen, für die Erfassung von Architekturdetails sowie für Porträts.

Besondere Vorzüge:

Bei dem MC-S 2,8/180 mm ist es durch den Einsatz modernster Rechenmethoden gelungen, die Korrektionsbedingungen für das Kleinbildformat auf das Mittelformat 60 mm x 60 mm auszudehnen. Dies bedeutet: Die hohe Schärfe eines Kleinbildobjektivs erstreckt sich bis in die Bildecken des Mittelformats.

Die Mehrfachbeschichtung (MC) erhöht die Brillanz der Aufnahmen, reduziert störende Reflexe bei Gegenlichtaufnahmen, verbessert die Lichtdurchlässigkeit des Objektivs und gibt den Linsenflächen eine größere Beständigkeit gegenüber äußeren Einflüssen.

Das MC-S 2,8/180 mm hat weiter den besonderen Vorzug, daß es sowohl an der 60 mm x 60 mm Spiegelreflexkamera Pentaconsix wie auch an Kleinbild-Spiegelreflexkameras verwendbar ist. Dies wird durch auswechselbare Adapter ermöglicht Das Objektiv ist in seiner Grundausführung für die Pentaconsix vorgesehen. Zur Benutzung an Kleinbild-Spiegelreflexkameras können folgende Adapter geliefert werden.

1. Adapter M42/E mit elektrischer Blendenwertübertragung für Praktica LLC, VLC, PLC2, VLC2, EE2.

2. Adapter M 42 für alle anderen Praktica-Modelle.

3. Adapter mit Exakta-Bajonett für alle Exakta-Modelle.

***

An accessory lens with a long focal length

- with large opening

- with interchangeable adapter

- with multiple coating (MC)

- with automatic diaphragm for the Pentaconsix 60 mm x 60 mm SLR camera (flange focal distance of 74.0 mm) and for 35mm SLR cameras with Praktica screw mount M 42 x 1 (flange focal distance of 45.5 mm) or with Exakta bayonet mount (flange focal distance of 44.7 mm )

- with electrical aperture value transmission for the Praktica LLC, VLC, PLC 2, VLC 2, EE 2

The MC-S 2.8/180 mm is intended for animal and sports photos as well as reportages. The 1:2.8 aperture, which is exceptionally large for this focal length, allows color and black and white photos to be taken even in poor lighting. The image performance is very good even at full opening. The MC-S 2.8/180 mm is also suitable for long-distance landscape photography, for capturing architectural details and for portraits.

Special advantages:

With the MC-S 2.8/180 mm, the use of the most modern calculation methods has made it possible to extend the correction conditions for the 35 mm format to the medium format 60 mm x 60 mm. This means: The high sharpness of a 35mm lens extends into the corners of the medium format image.

The multiple coating (MC) increases the brilliance of the images, reduces annoying reflections when taking photos against the light, improves the light transmission of the lens and gives the lens surfaces greater resistance to external influences.

The MC-S 2.8/180 mm also has the special advantage that it can be used on the 60 mm x 60 mm Pentaconsix SLR camera as well as on 35mm SLR cameras. This is made possible by interchangeable adapters. The basic version of the lens is intended for the Pentaconsix. The following adapters can be supplied for use with 35mm SLR cameras.

1. Adapter M42/E with electrical aperture value transmission for Praktica LLC, VLC, PLC2, VLC2, EE2.

2. Adapter M 42 for all other Praktica models.

3. Adapter with Exakta bayonet for all Exakta models.

Manufacturer description #2

Manufacturer's description for the lens with the Exakta adapter:

Die Blende wird mit der Entfernungseinstellung automatisch so gesteuert, daß das Offnungsverhältnis über den ganzen Einstellbereich konstant bleibt, also bei Nahaufhahmen keiner nachträglichen Korrektur bedarf.

Zum Jena-S 2,8/180 mm wird eine Sonnenblende mitgeliefert, die mit einem Zwischenring M 86/M 95 versehen ist. Bei Verwendung des für das Jena-S 2,8/180 mm bestimmten Filters M 86 W muß dieser Zwischenring entfernt werden; die Sonnenblende wird in diesem Fail unmittelbar auf das Filter geschraubt.

***

The aperture is automatically controlled with the distance setting so that the aperture ratio remains constant over the entire setting range, meaning that no subsequent correction is required for close-up shots.

The Jena-S 2.8/180 mm comes with a lens hood that is equipped with an M 86/M 95 intermediate ring. When using the M 86 W filter intended for the Jena-S 2.8/180 mm, this intermediate ring must be removed; In this case, the lens hood is screwed directly onto the filter.

From the editor

Introduced around 1963/1964.

Older brochures for Exakta 35mm SLR cameras indicate a closest focusing distance of 2.2m. Since 1973, manufacturer's brochures indicate 1.7m, regardless of whether any interchangeable adapter was installed on this Praktisix (Pentacon Six) mount lens or not.

With the M42 screw mount adapter, the lens weighs 1365g and has an overall length of 151mm.

With the Exakta adapter, the lens weighs 1365g and has an overall length of 147mm. The "Fotoobjektive aus Jena für Exakta, Exa II, Exa I" (1966) and "Photographic lenses for Exakta, Exa II, Exa I" (1966) indicate an overall length 204.6mm with the dedicated lens hood.

The lens existed in the following finish types:

  • TYPE 1: aluminum finish with black leatherette covered focusing ring and a glossy enamel identification ring with white filled engraving. The aperture and focusing scales are red and black filled engraving.
  • TYPE 2: aluminum finish or black enamel with hard plastic focusing ring with raised ovals. The aperture ring is aluminum with orange filled engraving. The aperture and focusing distance scales are red and white filled engraving.
  • TYPE 3: black enamel with alternating aluminum bands on focusing and aperture rings. The aperture ring is aluminum with black filled engraving. The aperture and focusing distance scales are orange and white filled engraving.
  • TYPE 4: black enamel with a diamond or pyramid-shaped pattern on the focusing ring. The aperture ring is black enamel with white filled engraving. The focusing distance scale is red and white filled engraving. On most lenses the front of the focusing ring is bright aluminum but some have the finish totally in black.

From about 1976, the TYPE 4 became multi-coated.

Other short telephoto prime lenses in the Praktisix/Pentacon six system

Praktisix (Pentacon Six) mount (1)
Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Biometar 120mm F/2.8 [MC]A5 - 41.30mE67 1956 
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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/2.8 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.