Sony ZV-E1

35mm AF digital mirrorless camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:March 2023
System: Sony E (2013)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Imaging sensor:35.6 × 23.8mm CMOS sensor
Resolution:4240 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor-shift image stabilization:Yes
Mount and Flange focal distance:Sony E [18mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:399g
Dimensions:121x71.9x54.3mm

Manufacturer description

SAN DIEGO, March 29, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Sony Electronics announced today the new ZV-E1, an interchangeable lens camera with a high performance 35mm full-frame image sensor for the ultimate video creation experience. Newly positioned in Sony's ZV vlog camera line-up, the ZV-E1 boasts a 12MP full-frame image sensor, Sony's latest BIONZ XR image processing engine, a dedicated AI (artificial intelligence) processing unit, compatibility with over 70 Sony E-mount lenses, and other advanced technologies for capturing cinematic imagery with rich colors, low noise and high precision. The world's most compact, lightweight full frame interchangeable lens camera, the ZV-E1 offers outstanding mobility, with refined operation to give video creators maximum creative freedom and versatility.

"The ZV-E1 has been designed to deliver a premium content creation tool for video creators who want to elevate their content," says Yang Cheng, Vice President, Imaging Solutions, Sony Electronics Inc. "We are constantly listening to feedback from our customers, pushing to innovate to meet their demands. We have taken all the information into mind with our development of this new camera – with more sophisticated video features, a streamlined user experience and an extremely compact design, the ZV-E1 offers a whole new way for today's creators to create top level video content."

Expressive imagery that emphasizes the subject

The ZV-E1 is a dedicated content creation camera that features a 35mm full-frame back-illuminated CMOS Exmor R™ sensor, with approximately 12.1 effective megapixels, delivering high sensitivity, low noise and gorgeous bokeh.

With up to eight times more processing power than previous Sony processors, the new BIONZ XR™ image processing engine markedly boosts high-sensitivity performance, gradation rendering, color reproduction, low-noise performance, and more. The high volume of data generated by the image sensor can be processed in real time, even when shooting 4K (QFHD: 3840 x 2160) footage at 120p. The BIONZ XR processor also contributes significantly to improved AF speed and precision.

High-quality 4K (QFHD) video can be recorded with full pixel readout at 10-bit 4:2:2, without the need for pixel binning and with very high speed to minimize rolling shutter. This makes the expressive advantages of the full-frame format available for video recording while delivering high-resolution 4K footage. Users can upgrade from 4K 60p to 4K 120p through the Creators' Cloud for extraordinarily smooth 5x (max.) slow-motion imagery. Direct playback for video in slow or quick motion in the S&Q mode boasts outstanding image quality.

With 15+ stop latitude, it's possible to capture natural looking images in a wide variety of lighting to capture natural looking images even in extraordinarily low light situations without losing highlight or shadow detail. The standard ISO range extends from 80 to 102400 for both stills and movies. The expanded range for stills is 40 to 409600, and the expanded range for movies is 80 to 409600.

Turn cinematic dreams into reality

The ZV-E1 can create standout content with Cinematic Vlog Settings, an intuitive way to capture scenes with the cinematic look of feature movies. By choosing an appropriate Look, Mood and AF transition speed, anyone can create cinematic footage that ideally matches the scene and creative intent. The overall cinematic feel is further enhanced by a 24 fps frame rate and the widescreen Cinemascope aspect ratio (2.35:1).

For a truly cinematic look, the ZV-E1 features S-Cinetone, a unique Sony feature which can create a cinematic look straight out of the camera without post-processing. Based on Sony's Cinema Line technology, S-Cinetone delivers natural mid-tones that are essential to healthy-looking skin color to deliver cinematic quality.

A selection of new Creative Looks makes it easy to create interesting appearances for stills and video right in the camera. Ten Creative Looks are provided as presets that can be used as they are or customized with the touch of a button. Newly added My Image Style makes it possible to shoot in the Intelligent Auto or Scene Selection mode; icons on the touch-sensitive monitor make it easy to directly adjust background bokeh, brightness, and color tone, as well as select a Creative Look.

AI plus leading technology delivers consistently stunning imagery

The ZV-E1 features a dedicated, powerful AI (artificial intelligence) processing unit that leverages Sony's technologies to uniquely overcome the challenges of self-taken footage faced by "crew of one" creators. By using AI human recognition, newly developed features of Multiple Face Recognition, Auto Framing, Framing Stabilizer and even Auto Microphone directivity have now become possible. For the first time, the ZV-E1 allows for true self-taken footage and even minimizes or eliminates the need for a second shooter.

Real-time Recognition AF incorporates an innovative AI processing unit that uses subject form data to accurately recognize movement - human pose estimation technology uses learned human forms and postures to recognize not just eyes, but body and head position with high precision, making it possible to lock onto and track a subject facing away from the camera. The AI processing unit can even differentiate between multiple subjects having different postures and recognition of individual faces so that tracking reliability is achieved in challenging situations such as when a subject's face is tilted, in shadow, or backlit. In addition to Human and Animal, the AI processing unit now makes it possible to recognize Bird, Insect, Car/Train and Airplane subjects, providing even greater flexibility and reliability when shooting both stills and video.

The camera features Multiple Face Recognition which automatically adjusts bokeh and focus on multiple recognized faces when shooting group selfies or group portraits - preventing problems like only the faces in the front being in focus while others further back are out of focus. Breathing Compensation suppresses image shifts when focusing to maintain a consistent angle of view and achieve smooth focusing effects.

The ZV-E1 features AI-based Real-time Tracking that can be activated by specifying the subject and half-pressing the shutter button. The camera will then automatically track the subject, leaving the user free to concentrate on framing and composition. The new camera has a fast Hybrid AF for fast acquisition and tenacious tracking as well detailed AF settings for ultimate precision and control.

Another new feature of the ZV-E1 is the AI-based Auto Framing for video which is ideal for recording interviews, music performances, cooking, and much more. Using AI-based subject recognition technology, the Auto Framing feature automatically crops the frame to the users desired level, keeping the subject in a prominent position when shooting video. Even when the camera is mounted on a tripod, for example, the framing is continually adjusted so that the recorded footage looks like the subject is being followed by an experienced camera operator, ideal for a single person shooting scenario.

A compact, 5-axis stabilization unit and gyro sensors with optimized algorithms achieve up to 5.0-step stabilization. The in-body image stabilization of the camera provides effective stabilization with a wide range of lenses, including E-mount lenses that do not include their own stabilization. Dynamic active Mode stabilization is approximately 30% more effective than what Active Mode provides. This makes it easier than ever to shoot smooth, stable footage while moving around for bold, dynamic expression. The ZV-E1 also boasts a Framing Stabilizer that uses advanced AI-based subject recognition in conjunction with the camera's Dynamic active mode image stabilization to automatically keep the subject's position in the frame constant.

The camera also features a Bokeh Switch for one-touch background bokeh enhancement and of course, the ZV-E1 also includes the Product Showcase Setting in the rest of the Sony ZV line, designed for product review videos and allowing users to smoothly switch focus from the presenter's face to a product and back.

Control time to capture unforgettable moments and situations

In-camera time-lapse creation is a great feature for users who want to record time-lapse video sequences like the movements of clouds, people, cities and other slowly changing subjects in uniquely expressive ways. The exposure interval can be set from 1 second to 60 seconds, making it easy to compress slow action into enjoyable time-lapse sequences. Interval shooting used to capture individual still images at intervals greater than 60 seconds is also available.

Advanced audio for winning content

The ZV-E1 features a high-performance 3-capsule microphone with variable directivity to optimize clear and crisp audio recordings. Front, all directions, and rear directivity settings are available to match a variety of environments, and for the first time, automatically switches to a direction in line with face recognition, so users can easily make optimal recordings. The new Auto setting allows [Front] or [All Directions] directivity to be automatically selected according to the current subject recognition and tracking status. The camera also includes a Multi Interface (MI) shoe with digital audio interface and mic and headphone jacks offer expanded audio capabilities. Supplied with the camera, is a windscreen that can significantly reduce noise when shooting in windy conditions.

Advanced and in-depth editing support gets the creator's intent across

The ZV-E1 can record 10-bit 4:2:2 video internally when using Long GOP or All Intra compression, supports internal intra-frame (All-I) recording and XAVC HS format recording using the MPEG-H HEVC/H.265 codec provides approximately doubled efficiency.

The camera has Flexible ISO, which can be set to AUTO or manually set between 640 and 102400 (160 and 409600 in expanded ISO mode). Picture profiles with assignable LUTs are available so users can create specific looks when shooting in modes other than one of the preset Log modes.

The ZV-E1 records image stabilization and camera rotation metadata that can be useful when editing in the free Catalyst Browse desktop application, paid Catalyst Prepare desktop application or plugin as users can quickly and precisely stabilise footage during editing. Lens breathing compensation can be applied during editing.

Designed for easy content creation

The ZV-E1 has been designed for ease of use, with a side-opening vari-angle, 3 inch type 1.07 Mdot LCD Screen for easy monitoring, a touch function while recording and control layout and grip optimized for content creation.

The new camera features uninterrupted power for extended recording with Sony's high-capacity Z battery and USB PD (Power Delivery) that supports fast charging. The ZV-E1 also features a dust and moisture resistant design.

Stream top-quality live content as when connected to a personal computer or smartphone via USB the ZV-E1 can function as a 4K (2160p) webcam and take online meetings, live events, and even simple conversations with family and friends to new creative heights.

Creators' Cloud and easy smartphone connection

Creators can connect and share content easily with Sony's newly announced Creator's Cloud platform and easy smartphone connection.

The Creator's App can be used to control the ZV-E1 from the smartphone, and transfer stills and videos shot on the camera to the smartphone. Camera battery and media status can be monitored from the smartphone, and date and camera names can be edited as needed. The Creator's App also provides a convenient way to update camera software.

Designed with sustainability in mind

In addition to Sony's commitment to a sustainable future with global initiatives like Road to Zero and the 2030 renewable energy goal, the ZV-E1 has been specifically developed with sustainability in mind.

The camera has a newly developed windscreen using fibers made from recycled PET bottles to reduce Sony's environmental impact, without compromising functionality. Lastly, the outer packaging of the ZV-E1 is environmentally conscious and recyclable with no plastic and employs Sony's 'Original Blend Material' – bamboo, sugar cane and recycled paper. Also, plant-based non-woven fabrics are used for the product bags to minimize Sony's environmental footprint.

Also, ZV-E1 includes accessibility features that facilitate operation in several ways, including screen reader functionality for the visually impaired. Accessibility features allow anyone to enjoy shooting and playback using the ZV-E1.

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Copyright © 2012-2024 Evgenii Artemov. All rights reserved. Translation and/or reproduction of website materials in any form, including the Internet, is prohibited without the express written permission of the website owner.

Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.