Minolta XK

aka Minolta X-1
aka Minolta XM

35mm MF film SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:April 1973
System: Minolta SR (1958)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:Minolta SR [43.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:16 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:670g
Dimensions:144.5x84x48mm

Manufacturer description #1

Minolta's XK has the potential and built·in versatility to make it the precisely correct camera to use in any situation. But the most complete XK uses the Auto Electro Finder, providing automatic exposure. Just set the lens opening, and the shutter speed is controlled and set electronically.

Exposure Nerve Center

The XK's electronic exposure system is contained in the Auto Electro Finder. The Contrast Light Compensator meter using light sensitive CdS cells is located in the finder, measuring light through-the-lens at full aperture.

Also built into this finder is all the circuitry necessary to electronically time and release the shutter. Special circuits calculate the film sensitivity, lens aperture, plus other critical factors, combining these with CLC light measurement determining exposure. Now complete, this information is held in the finder's electronic IC memory. During the actual instant of exposure, the memory circuit releases the precise current required to the electronically controlled shutter. These impulses travel along internal micro circuits of the XK body to the shutter release mechanism, 3 timing shutter speed precisely.

The entire process takes place in a fraction of a millisecond allowing continual change of exposure inputs, right up to the instant the mirror snaps up and the exposure is made.

Electronic Shutter Speeds

Perfectly-timed shutter speeds in the XK extend from 16 full seconds to an incredible 1/2000 of a second, a speed fast enough to capture anything your eye is capable of tracking. Throughout this entire range, all speeds are electronically accurate.

When the camera is set in automatic mode, there are no restrictions whatsoever. Electronic stepless speeds then start at 4 seconds and run to the top speed of 1/2000 of a second for pinpoint correctness at any speed within these two extremes. Shutter speed is free to vary, unburdened by the normal incremental limitations imposed by most mechanically adjusted shutters.

The advantages of electronic timing are far-reaching, and you will discover them in situations where handling speed and exposure accuracy are of the essence. This is when the XK is at its ultimate best, and this is when you'll appreciate it most.

Inside the Finder

Displayed inside the finder are all things necessary to monitor exposure: shutter speed scale, the aperture at which the lens is set, and appropriate indicators. Also visible is the Light-Emitting-Diode exposure warning signal which pulsates when exposure conditions fall below the meter's lower operating limits.

The finder is unusually bright from side to side, corner to corner, and presents a complete, clear view of the subject area. Even most eyeglass wearers will be able to examine the entire field of view without averting their eye.

More About the Auto Electro Finder

For photographic effect, a thumb controlled Auto Exposure Override Control may be engaged. This control makes it possible to under or over-expose a picture a maximum of plus or minus two EV by continuously varying the shutter speed. If, for example, the correct exposure indicated is 1/125 then the speed with the override could vary from 1/30 to 1/500 as you prefer.

In addition to completely automatic operation, the Auto Electro Finder also allows you to set exposure by using the conventional match needle method. These speeds, too, are electronically controlled for exact timing.

A unique system is used to activate the Auto Electro Finder's exposure control systems. Called Auto-Senswitch, the strip on the XK body responds to the touch of your hand, switching on the finder as soon you grasp the camera, and shutting it off when the camera is released. An auxiliary switch, located on the finder, is used when the camera is not hand held.

Titanium Shutter Curtains

In addition to electronic control, the XK shutter is uncommon in still another way. The curtains themselves are constructed of titanium, a special metal that can be rolled to amazing thinness. Titanium curtains are superior in resisting the damaging effects that adverse climates can have on conventional materials. Consequently, the XK's shutter curtains maintain reliability even under conditions of extreme cold, heat and humidity.

Film Advance Lever

For improved handling, the film advance lever rotates on precision bearings. The operation is distinct and even while imparting a genuine feeling of smoothness. Comfortably cushioned, the lever swings out 20° before engagement. A further 110° stroke advances the film and cocks the shutter. Several short strokes or a single stroke will accomplish this function.

Minolta SLR Bayonet Lens Mount

This is the same famous method of mounting lenses that Minolta has used for over 15 years. To guarantee a lasting precision fit, lenses seat against a stainless steel flange. Mounting is accomplished by inserting and twisting the lens 54° in a single, smooth-flowing motion. No other adjustments are required. And simply installing the lens automatically sets the proper metering mode - full aperture through-the-lens with MC Rokkor-X Lenses, or stop down with Rokkors that are not meter coupled.

Multiple Exposures

The procedure for taking accurate multiple exposures is the picture of simplicity with the XK. Merely depressing the film advance release permits the shutter to be cocked without moving the film forward to the next frame. The film remains motionless, holding its position exactly, regardless of how many exposures are made on a single frame.

Film Speed Range

The Minolta XK accepts every type of 35mm film that is now commercially available. The speed range selection extends from ASA 12 to ASA 6400, a choice flexible enough to accommodate every photographic task imaginable.

Oversize, Quick-Return Mirror

The XK's reflex mirror is sufficiently large to avoid image cutoff even when extreme perspectives are desired. This includes very long telephoto shots and highly-magnified close·ups. An independent mirror lock-up switch is also provided. This switch doubles as a depth-of-field preview button.

Batteries and Battery Checker

Only three volts of electric current are necessary for the XK's electronic shutter and exposure control systems. Power is derived from a pair of tiny silver-oxide batteries. The battery chamber is located in the base of the camera to make installing a fresh pair a simple, uncomplicated process. Silver-oxide batteries are generally superior to other types and can be used at lower temperatures.

A battery checker switch with signal light is located on the left side of the camera body.

Battery failure is unlikely. Yet should it occur, there is a mechanism built into the XK which permits you to continue shooting without battery power. You have the option of turning to the non-electronic speed of "X" which is 1/100 of a second ("B" setting is also non-electronic).

X Synchronization

By positioning the shutter speed dial at "X" the shutter synchronizes with electronic flash units at a very rapid 1/100 of a second. This speed is non-electronic and does not require battery power. There is only one receptacle for cord contact flash units. For X or FP synchronization, a switch is provided.

Cordless Flash Contact

For cordless flash units, a "Hot Shoe" contact is incorporated into the XK. Minolta's flash mount accessory holder provides the direct connection for flash synchronization.

XK Standard Lenses

For the XK, you have three, newly-designed standard Rokkor-X Lenses to select from. Each has a new waffle pattern focusing grip for easy handling while shooting.

The most demanding photographer will probably choose the 58mm F1.2. The most popular normal lens is the 50mm Rokkor-X with a maximum aperture of F1.4. An alternative to this would be the 50mm F1.7. Regardless of which basic lens you may prefer, all are made with the same commitment to exceptional optics and all have Minolta's exclusive Achromatic Coating.

Manufacturer description #2

Your Minolta XK is a wide-scope electronic system camera that accepts all Minolta SLR lenses and accessories as well as XK interchangeable finders and focusing screens. It is engineered and built to give you greatest precision; easiest, most convenient operation; and msximum versatility. It gives full information and offers complete control of all camera exposure variables. In automatic operation, the XK will adjust exposure with utmost accuracy electronically, freeing you for more enjoyment or greater creativity.

Manufacturer description #3

TYPE: Interchangeable-finder-type 35mm single-lens reflex with electronic focal-plane shutter

LENS MOUNT: (Standard lenses: MC Rokkor-X 50mm F1.7, 50mm F1.4, or 58mm F1.2). Coupling: For full-aperture metering and automatic diaphragm operation with MC (Meter-Coupled) Lenses (Stop-down metering is used for other than MC Lenses). Button for depth-of-field preview and stop-down metering

SHUTTER: Electronically controlled focal-plane type with titanium curtains and 2 mechanically controlled settings. Electronic speeds: 16 to 1/2000 sec. in steps, 4 to 1/2000 sec. continuously variable (with Auto Electro Finder). Mechanical settings: X (1/100 sec.) and B. Curtain traverse time: 9ms. Power source: Two 1.5v silver-oxide batteries (Mallory MS-76, Eveready S-76, or equivalent). Film advance locks when voltage is insufficient

VIEWFINDER: Interchangeable type showing 98% of area appearing on film (Auto Electro, Plain, High-Magnification, and Waist-Level Finders available); Type P focusing screen (mat Fresnel field with horizontally oriented split-image spot) supplied as standard, interchangeable with 8 other screen types

FILM ADVANCE: Lever type, single- or multiple-stroke, 110 deg. winding angle after 20 deg. unengaged movement; advancing-type exposure counter resets automatically when camera back is opened

MULTIPLE EXPOSURES: Possible with film-advance release

MIRROR: Oversize, quick-return type, with lock-up device: no image cutoff even with extreme telephotos (PO value: 140mm)

SELF-TIMER: Lever type, operating time variable from approx. 6 to 10 sec.

FLASH SYNC: X contact: Electronic flash synchronizes at 1/100 (X) and longer stepless and step speeds, FP contact: FP bulbs synchronize at all step speeds through 1/2000 sec. including X (1/100); single terminal in threaded socket with X/FP switch; direct contact on accessory mount for Minolta cordless flashguns with optional accessory hot shoe

OTHER: Built-in Auto "Senswitch" keeps finder power on while camera is held in usual operation (alternate switch located on Auto Electro Finder); battery checker on end of body; accessory mount (with direct flash contact) on body around back-release knob; loaded film reminder on bottom

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Copyright © 2012-2024 Evgenii Artemov. All rights reserved. Translation and/or reproduction of website materials in any form, including the Internet, is prohibited without the express written permission of the website owner.

Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.