Minolta XD11

aka Minolta XD
aka Minolta XD7

35mm MF film SLR camera

Specification

Production details:
Announced:October 1977
System: Minolta SR (1958)
Format:
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Film type:135 cartridge-loaded film
Mount and Flange focal distance:Minolta SR [43.5mm]
Shutter:
Type:Focal-plane
Model:Electronically controlled
Speeds:1 - 1/1000 + B
Exposure:
Exposure metering:Through-the-lens (TTL), open-aperture
Exposure modes:Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Physical characteristics:
Weight:560g
Dimensions:136x86x51mm

Manufacturer description #1

A compact 35mm SLR so advanced that it can actually correct exposure errors, even if you fail to.

Tomorrow's camera is here: a 35mm SLR so infinitely versatile that it will change the way you take pictures.

Multi-mode creative control.

No longer must you choose between aperture-priority or shutter-priority automation. The Minolta XD-11 gives you both, as well as fully manual operation.

The aperture-priority mode gives you control over depth-of-field and lets you use close-up equipment or mirror lenses automatically. As you adjust the aperture, the XD-11 sets the precise shutter speed needed for correct exposure, steplessly from 1 to 1/1000th second.

When shutter speed control is more important, use the shutter-priority mode. The XD-11 will set the aperture automatically.

In both automatic modes, an override lets you modify exposure up to ±2 EV in click stops or continuously.

And you can have full manual control, setting both aperture and shutter speed as you wish. In manual mode, the metering system continues to give you exposure information.

Electronic exposure automation. And then some.

Electronics are at the heart of the XD-11, monitoring and adjusting exposure with infinite precision and providing a continuous LED viewfinder display of camera and light conditions.

Even if you fail to heed LED over- or under-exposure warnings during shutter-priority operation, the XD-11 will - on its own - automatically adjust speeds within the range of the shutter to provide correct exposure.

Although the XD-11 is electronic, you're not totally at the mercy of battery power. If batteries fail, you may still take a picture on "B" or at "O," which is 1/100th second.

No other 35mm SLR viewfinder is as bright.

The light-gathering power of over two million tiny conical lenses makes the XD-11's viewfinder the brightest of all 35mm SLR cameras. Composing and focusing are fast and effortless, even in the dimmest light and along the edges of the finder.

The instant-return mirror is the largest in any 35mm SLR. Result: no image cut-off in the finder with even the longest lenses.

The finder stays at full brightness, but exposure is measured through the taking aperture.

The XD-11's meter reading is center weighted for optimum exposure accuracy under a wide variety of light conditions. A silicon photo diode reads light constantly and reacts instantly to changes.

From the moment you release the shutter, the meter begins to measure light coming through the aperture as it is closing. Final measurement is made through the actual taking aperture, even though the finder remains at full brightness up to the very instant of exposure.

Quiet, smooth operation that can't be described.

You have to listen to the XD-11 to believe that any 35mm SLR can be this quiet.

The film advance is silky smooth, without a trace of harshness or grinding. A feather touch on the electromagnetic shutter release brings the XD-11 to life, activating the metering system and viewfinder display. Depress the release and you've made your exposure. Effortlessly and ever so softly, with vibration and sound cushioned by insulation and a specially designed damper mechanism.

The XD-11 is compact, but not cramped. Lightweight, but with a solid, substantial feeling. Your fingers fall into place naturally on oversized controls. The back is contoured to fit your hands. Glove-soft leather-like material cushions the body.

The all-important details.

The XD-11 is filled with all the little refinements that make photography easier and more rewarding. It will give you precisely registered multiple exposures with pushbutton simplicity. There's a window to show when film is advancing properly. A viewfinder curtain to keep light out during tripod or remote operation. A variable self-timer. And a depth-of-field preview button.

Not just another winder.

The optional Auto Winder D for the XD-11 is the smallest and lightest available today. It attaches in seconds, without removing any caps. And you can reload your camera, rewind the film or make multiple exposures without removing it.

The winder will advance the film one frame at a time or continuously at two frames per second. It stops automatically at the end of the film. An LED flashes to show when the winder is operating and glows steadily when the roll is completed.

Not just another electronic flash.

Here's another unusual feature that you should find very useful: an optional electronic flash that can fire in synch with the XD-11's Auto Winder.

The Auto Electroflash 200X attaches to the hot shoe of the XD-11 and automatically sets the shutter for flash synch at 1/100th second when the unit is recycled. A pulsating LED in the viewfinder shows when the Electroflash is ready to fire. Until then, the XD-11 will continue to operate automatically in aperture or shutter-priority mode and the 200X will not fire.

Use any Minolta lens ever made.

If you own MC Rokkor-X, MC Rokkor or Celtic lenses, you'll be glad to know that they can be used without modification on the XD-11 in the aperture-priority and manual modes. A new series of "MD" lenses has been designed for use with the XD-11 in all modes.

Manufacturer description #2

Your light, compact XD-11 camera is the first 35mm single-lens reflex on the market that lets you set either shutter speed or lens aperture according to your photographic purpose, with the camera's computer then automatically and steplessly controlling the other value for proper exposure. You can also set exposure manually, with or without reference to the camera's calculation. If you wish, you can leave exposure control entirely to the camera's program for perfect results over a wide range. Whichever you choose, complete solid-state information in the finder is automatically adjusted to show only that applicable, and a newly developed screen makes viewing brighter and focusing easier and more accurate. Safe Load Signal and electromagnetic shutter release head a host of other features. Attaching the accessory Auto Winder D enables single-frame/continuous motor film advance up to 2 frames/sec. Minolta's special Auto Electroflash signals flash-ready in the finder when charged and electronically sets the XD-11's shutter for strobe exposures when it is released; it also enables continuous-sequence flash with the winder. Besides new MD Rokkor-X lenses, your XD-11 uses virtually all interchangeable Rokkor-Xs made to date and all applicable Minolta SLR system accessories.

Manufacturer description #3

TYPE: Compact 35mm single-lens reflex with shutter- or aperture-priority automatic or metered/full-manual exposure control

LENS MOUNT: Minolta SLR bayonet, 54 deg. rotation angle; coupling for full-aperture metering and finder-display input and automatic diaphragm control, providing shutter-speed priority and aperture-priority operation with MD Rokkor-X lenses, aperture-priority operation only with MC and other Rokkor-X lenses; spring-return button for depth-of-field preview and for stop-down meter readings with other than MC or MD lenses (Standard lenses: 50mm f/1.4 or f/1.7 MD Rokkor-X)

AUTO-EXPOSURE CONTROL: Special low-voltage, low-current computer circuit (incorporating large-scale monolithic and hybrid ICs, samarium-cobalt compound impulse-release magnets and linear-resistance inputs) varies aperture and/or shutter speed steplessly for proper exposure according to metering indication at the shutter-speed/aperture, and film speed, and/or exposure adustment set. Auto-exposure range: EV 1 to EV 18 at ASA 100 with f/1.4 lens

SHUTTER: Vertical-traverse metal-blade focal-plane type, with electromagnetic release; electronically controlled speeds: 1/1000 to 1 sec. steplessly on automatic modes or in steps on manual mode or at "X" (1/100 sec.) setting. Mechanically controlled settings (no battery power required): "O" (1/100 sec.), "B" (bulb)

METERING: TTL center-weighted type by silicon photo cell mounted at rear of pentaprism; at full aperture for normal display, at taking aperture for exposure (shutter-speed) determination or stop-down display

FILM-SPEED RANGE: ASA 12 to 3200 set by dial (around rewind-crank/back-release knob) with lock

AUTO-EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT: Up to +/-2 EV continuous adjustment of auto or metered manual with locks at zero-position and each EV setting

MIRROR: Oversize quick-return type (PO value: 143mm) with pneumatic damper

VIEWFINDER: Eye-level fixed pentaprism type showing 94% of 24x36mm film-frame area; magnification: 0.87X with 50mm standard lens focused at infinity; power: -1D, variable with accessory snap-on eyepiece correction lenses; Fresnel-field focusing screen having an artificially regular-patterned matte field plus central split-image horizontally oriented focusing spot surrounded by microprism band; visible around frame: Shutter speed and f-number set on "S" or "M" mode, f-number set with MD or most MC lenses on "A" mode; LED indication of aperture (on "S") or shutter speed (on "A" or "M") for correct exposure by 10 light-emitting diodes; LED over-/under-range indicators, upper of which also blinks as a flash-ready signal with Auto Electroflash 200X and lights at "X", "O", and "B" shutter settings; Built-in eyepiece shutter positioned by lever

FLASH SYNC AND CONTROL: PC terminal and hot shoe for X-sync. (disconnected when unit not installed); Electronic flash synchronizes at 1/100 sec. (i.e., electronic "X" or mechanical "O" shutter settings) and slower step or stepless speeds; Class MF, M, and FP flashbulbs synchronizes at 1/15 or slower speeds. Extra contact on hot shoe, receives signal from camera-control contact of Auto Electroflash 200X whenever capacitor is charged to cause upper LED triangle in finder to blink and then set shutter at fixed 1/100 sec.

FILM ADVANCE: Motorized: Through built-in coupler key with accessory Auto Winder D. Manual: By lever with single 130 deg. stroke after 30 deg. unengaged movement. Film advance release button for rewinding and multiple exposures. Advancing-type frame counter (no advance with multiple exposures). Safe Load Signal indicates film loading and advancing condition

POWER: Two 1.5v silver-oxide cells contained in camera base power both auto exposure control and shutter's electronically governed operation. Power switch in operating button. Battery check by depressing operating button slightly: LED's dim or do not light as cells approach exhaustion. Shutter will not release when voltage too low for proper operation

SELF-TIMER: Lever type, operating time variable up to approx. 10 sec. at full stroke; cycle started by pushing operating button

OTHER: 4-slot take-up spool; detachable back cover with memo holder and ASA-DIN conversion scale

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Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.