ZEISS Otus Apo Distagon T* 55mm F/1.4 ZE / ZF.2

Standard prime lens • Digital era

APO The lens features apochromatic optical design.
T* The multi-layer coating is applied to the surface of lens elements. It boosts light transmission, ensures sharp and high contrast images, minimizes ghosting and flares.
ZE The lens is designed for Canon EOS 35mm full-frame SLR cameras but can be also used on APS-C SLR cameras.
ZF.2 The lens is designed for Nikon 35mm full-frame SLR cameras but can be also used on APS-C SLR cameras. The lens features a built-in CPU which is used to transfer metering data from the lens to the camera.

Sample photos

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F/1.4
F/2.2
F/1.4
F/1.4
F/1.4
F/5.6
F/5.6
F/2
F/2.8
F/2
F/4
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/2
F/5.6
F/4
F/2.8

Canon EOS 1Ds

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2002
Mount:Canon EF
Format:35.8 × 23.8mm
Resolution:4064 × 2704 - 11 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 1Ds mark II

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2004
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:4992 × 3328 - 17 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5D

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:August 2005
Mount:Canon EF
Format:35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4368 × 2912 - 13 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 1Ds mark III

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:August 2007
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5616 × 3744 - 21 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5D mark II

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2008
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5616 × 3744 - 21 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 1D X

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:October 2011
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5184 × 3456 - 18 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5D mark III

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:March 2012
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5760 × 3840 - 22 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 6D

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2012
Mount:Canon EF
Format:35.8 × 23.9mm
Resolution:5472 × 3648 - 20 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5Ds

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2015
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:8688 × 5792 - 50 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5Ds R

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2015
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:8688 × 5792 - 50 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 1D X Mark II

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2016
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5472 × 3648 - 20 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 5D mark IV

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:August 2016
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:6720 × 4480 - 30 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 6D Mark II

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:June 2017
Mount:Canon EF
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:6240 × 4160 - 26 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Canon EOS 1D X Mark III

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:January 2020
Mount:Canon EF
Format:36 × 24mm
Resolution:5472 × 3648 - 20 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D3

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:August 2007
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D700

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:July 2008
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D3X

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:December 2008
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:6048 × 4032 - 24 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D3s

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:October 2009
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D4

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:January 2012
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D800

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2012
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D800E

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2012
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D600

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2012
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D610

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:October 2013
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon Df

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:November 2013
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D4s

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2014
Mount:Nikon F
Format:36 × 23.9mm
Resolution:4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D810

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:June 2014
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D750

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:September 2014
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D810A

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2015
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 24mm
Resolution:7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D5

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:January 2016
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution:5588 × 3712 - 21 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D850

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:August 2017
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution:8256 × 5504 - 45 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D780

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:January 2020
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution:6048 × 4024 - 24 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Nikon D6

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced:February 2020
Mount:Nikon F
Format:35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution:5568 × 3712 - 21 MP
Sensor type:CMOS
Image stabilizer:-

Designed for

Click to expand or collapse section(s)

Features highlight

Ultra fast
T*
APO
1 Bi-ASPH
6 AD
F.E.
Auto
9 blades
MF
IF

Specification

Production details
Announced:October 2013
Production status:In production
Production type:Mass production
Original name:ZEISS Apo Distagon 1.4/55 T*
Optical design
Focal length:55mm
Speed:F/1.4
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Mount:Canon EF
Nikon F
Flange focal distance:44mm (Canon EF)
46.5mm (Nikon F)
Diagonal angle of view:42.9° (35mm full frame)
34.7° (Canon EF APS-H)
28.8° (Nikon F APS-C)
Lens construction:12 elements - 10 groups
1 Bi-ASPH, 6 AD
Floating element system
Diaphragm mechanism
Diaphragm type:Automatic
Number of blades:9
Focusing
Closest focusing distance:0.5m
Maximum magnification ratio:1:6.8 at the closest focusing distance
Focusing method:Internal focusing (IF)
Focusing modes:Manual focus only
Manual focus control:Focusing ring
Physical characteristics
Weight:1030g (Canon EF)
970g (Nikon F)
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀92.4×127.3mm (Canon EF)
⌀92.4×125.3mm (Nikon F)
Weather sealing:-
Fluorine coating:-
Accessories
Filters:Screw-type 77mm
Lens hood:Bayonet-type 2099-455 (round)

Manufacturer description #1

No-compromises image quality with the new ZEISS camera lens

The ZEISS Otus 1.4/55 stands out with technical features ideal for all-around professional photography with 35mm DSLR cameras

OBERKOCHEN/Germany, October 7, 2013: With an imaging performance that has hitherto only been seen with medium format systems, the new ZEISS Otus 1.4/55 offers ambitious photographers who do not accept any compromises in image quality the possibility for a more compact gear. DSLR cameras with high resolution 35mm sensors put enormous demands on lenses. The Otus1.4/55 can deal with these demands thanks to its outstanding sharpness, high image contrast and no visible chromatic aberrations. It creates the highest-possible image quality, even with an open aperture. The new ZEISS lens is especially suited for advertising, fashion and studio photography, and professional photographers working in these fields will not need to make any compromises in terms of performance and quality. The Otus 1.4/55 is the first lens in a family of uncompromising professional lenses from ZEISS. Additional focal lengths will follow. Otus is the Latin name for a type of owl known for its excellent vision in darkness — just like this new high-speed lens from ZEISS.

“Our goal was to bring the best standard lens for SLR cameras onto the market. The Otus 1.4/55 delivers outstanding sharpness and contrast rendition all the way into the corners of the image. The only way we could achieve this was through the complex Distagon optical design, which until now has only been found on wide-angle lenses,” explains Christophe Casenave, product manager for ZEISS Camera Lenses. “Thanks to the low level of longitudinal chromatic aberration, there are no visible aberrations. So an illuminated harbor scene by night with many light sources in front of and behind the actual focal plane appears close to reality, without displaying complementary, color contrast edges. The excellent performance delivered by Otus is constant for all shooting distances. Its high performance with an open aperture also makes this lens a good choice for close-ups or portraits. For architectural and landscape photography, the Otus 1.4/55 takes full advantage of modern high-resolution camera sensors, resulting in impressive resolution in the images, even for the smallest detail.”

Other unique features of the Otus 1.4/55 are its high image contrast all the way to the edges (even for low f-numbers) and the consistent high-resolution performance across the entire image field. The lens has a completely new optical and mechanical design, which was developed taking into account the special and increasing requirements of high-resolution DSLR cameras. The Otus 1.4/55 is equipped with a floating elements design with 12 lens elements in 10 groups, including a double-sided aspheric lens and six lenses made of special glass with anomalous partial dispersion. These sophisticated features create image results without color fringing or distortion. Cameras with a lower number of pixels will also benefit from the lens’s unique features.

The performance delivered by the Otus 1.4/55 is especially obvious with night shots. When taking pictures with many image-dominant, open light sources, it is common for correction defects to show up. Because the Otus 1.4/55 is an apochromatic lens, longitudinal chromatic aberrations are corrected by its lens elements of special glass with anomalous partial dispersion. The color defects are therefore significantly lower than the defined limits. Bright/dark transitions in the image, and especially highlights, are rendered with no colorful artifacts. Although it is not a traditional focal length for architectural and landscape photography, here, too, the lens can deliver very good results. The edges of the image can be used for all apertures, giving full rein to the photographer’s creativity. For portraiture, the Otus 1.4/55 render the finest details precisely, and thanks to the maximum aperture of f/1.4, the photographer can consciously play with the depth of field and create a smooth bokeh. The Otus 1.4/55 stands out not only for its highly detailed pictures with no bothersome artifacts, but also for its mechanical quality. The smooth focus operation with the large angle of rotation allows for the finest variations when focusing — qualities that are only possible in a metal barrel. Its design as a manual focus lens allowed the engineers to work with much smaller tolerances during the construction. The lens’s robust metal barrel with the easy to grip focus ring makes it perfect for the demanding everyday situations of professional photographers, and guarantees a long product life. The yellow labels on the scales, which are borrowed from the professional ZEISS cinema lenses, contribute to better visibility. For its innovative product design, the Otus 1.4/55 already won the iF product design award 2013.

The Otus 1.4/55 will be available with F bayonet (ZF.2) and EF bayonet (ZE) starting at the end of October in all global markets.

Manufacturer description #2

With the unrivalled performance that sets all Otus® lenses apart from the rest, the ZEISS Otus 1.4/55 is the absolute measure of perfection when it comes to standard lenses. Now you never need to settle for less again.

Is a focal length of 55 mm always neither here nor there? A lacklustre lens somewhere between the excitement of super wides and the fascination of long teles? Not when it combines the more than 120 years of optical and mechanical excellence ZEISS is famous for throughout the world.

Experience the quality and look of medium format photography – with the ZEISS Otus 1.4/55. No matter whether you shoot in daylight or at night, close up or more distant subjects, people, objects or landscapes, this lens will simply take your breath away with its high resolution and outstanding sharpness in every photographic situation.

Typical application

landscapes, interiors, buildings, cityscapes, portraits

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35mm full frame

43.27 24 36
  • Dimensions: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm

Travellers' choice

Note

Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.

Professional lens (Top class)

One of the best fast standard primes

According to lens-db.com; among lenses designed for the same maximum format and mount.

Apochromatic optical design

All glass elements in an optical system refract light in certain colors to a different extent. This leads to the effect that not all rays of light from a multi-colored subject are focused at a single imaging point – the result of this is chromatic aberration.

In this lens, the chromatic aberration is minimized by apochromatic correction.

A need for apochromatic correction arose with the increasing popularity of color film. Now, with high-resolution digital sensors, the need for superior control of chromatic aberrations is even more pertinent than when film changed from monochrome to color.

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Quality control issues

The manufacturer of this lens does not provide adequate quality control. If you do decide to purchase this lens, do not order it online, but choose the best copy available in the store. In any case, there may also be problems with the build quality, and warranty repairs can take months.

Zeiss Batis series

Professional full-frame autofocus lenses for Sony mirrorless cameras.

Zeiss Loxia series

Compact, full-frame manual focus lenses for Sony mirrorless cameras.

Zeiss Touit series

Autofocus lenses for Sony and Fujifilm APS-C mirrorless cameras.

Zeiss ZM series

Lenses with exceptional workmanship for rangefinder cameras.

Zeiss Otus series

Full-frame manual focus lenses specially designed for modern digital SLR cameras with high-resolution sensors. Deliver uncompromising performance, even at full aperture. Offer the standard of quality otherwise only achieved on medium format systems.

Zeiss Milvus series

Full-frame manual focus lenses specially designed for modern digital SLR cameras with high-resolution sensors. Optimal image performance for all focal lengths.

Zeiss Classic series

Full-frame manual focus lenses developed for ambitious photographers and their wide diversity of applications: macro, landscape, architecture, portrait, journalism, fashion and beauty. Enjoyed an outstanding reputation with photographers all over the world for many years. Characterized by classic appearance and high optical performance. Offer an excellent entry into premium class photography.

Unique Zeiss Look

Zeiss lenses are one-of-a-kind optical masterpieces that are impressive because of their unique Zeiss Look. This is ensured through exceptional optical design combined with selected materials and the highest quality standards.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

Aspherical elements

Aspherical elements (ASPH, XA, XGM) are used in wide-angle lenses for correction of distortion and in large-aperture lenses for correction of spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma, thus ensuring excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. The effect of the aspherical element is determined by its position within the optical formula: the more the aspherical element moves away from the aperture stop, the more it influences distortion; close to the aperture stop it can be particularly used to correct spherical aberration. Aspherical element can substitute one or several regular spherical elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Use of aspherical elements has its downsides: it leads to non-uniform rendering of out-of-focus highlights. This effect usually appears as "onion-like" texture of concentric rings or "wooly-like" texture and is caused by very slight defects in the surface of aspherical element. It is difficult to predict such effect, but usually it occurs when the highlights are small enough and far enough out of focus.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Canon's Super UD, Nikon's Super ED, Pentax' Super ED, Sigma's FLD ("F" Low Dispersion), Sony' Super ED and Tamron's XLD glasses are the highest level low dispersion glasses available with extremely high light transmission. These optical glasses have a performance equal to fluorite glass.

High-refraction low-dispersion elements

High-refraction low-dispersion elements (HLD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

High Index, High Dispersion elements

High Index, High Dispersion elements (HID) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Anomalous partial dispersion elements

Anomalous partial dispersion elements (AD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Fluorite elements

Synthetic fluorite elements (FL) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. Compared with optical glass, fluorite lenses have a considerably lower refraction index, low dispersion and extraordinary partial dispersion, and high transmission of infrared and ultraviolet light. They are also significantly lighter than optical glass.

According to Nikon, fluorite easily cracks and is sensitive to temperature changes that can adversely affect focusing by altering the lens' refractive index. To avoid this, Canon, as the manufacturer most widely using fluorite in its telephoto lenses, never uses fluorite in the front and rear lens elements, and the white coating is applied to the lens barrels to reflect light and prevent the lens from overheating.

Short-wavelength refractive elements

High and specialized-dispersion elements (SR) refract light with wavelengths shorter than that of blue to achieve highly precise chromatic aberration compensation. This technology also results in smaller and lighter lenses.

Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics

Organic Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics material (BR Optics) placed between convex and concave elements made from conventional optical glass provides more efficient correction of longitudinal chromatic aberrations in comparison with conventional technology.

Diffraction elements

Diffraction elements (DO, PF) cancel chromatic aberrations at various wavelengths. This technology results in smaller and lighter lenses in comparison with traditional designs with no compromise in image quality.

High refractive index elements

High refractive index elements (HR, HRI, XR etc) minimize field curvature and spherical aberration. High refractive index element can substitute one or several regular elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Apodization element

Apodization element (APD) is in fact a radial gradient filter. It practically does not change the characteristics of light beam passing through its central part but absorbs the light at the periphery. It sort of softens the edges of the aperture making the transition from foreground to background zone very smooth and results in very attractive, natural looking and silky smooth bokeh.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance from the lens mount to the film or sensor can also be different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Flange focal distance

The flange focal distance (FFD), sometimes called the "flange back", is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Floating element system

Provides correction of aberrations and ensures constantly high image quality at the entire range of focusing distances from infinity down to the closest focusing distance. It is particularly effective for the correction of field curvature that tends to occur with large-aperture, wide-angle lenses when shooting at close ranges.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Electromagnetic diaphragm control system

Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.

Convex protruding front element

The convex front element protrudes from the lens barrel, making it impossible to use filters.

Fixed focus

There is no helicoid in this lens and everything is in focus from the closest focusing distance to infinity.

Overall linear extension

The entire lens optical system moves straight backward and forward when focusing is carried out. This is the simplest type of focusing used mainly in wide-angle and standard prime lenses. It has the advantage of introducing relatively little change in aberrations with respect to change in focusing distance. With telephoto and super telephoto lenses this method becomes less beneficial in terms of operability because of the increased size and weight of the lens system.

Front group linear extension

The rear group remains fixed and only the front group moves straight backward and forward during focusing. This method is primarily used in zoom lenses and allows to design comparatively simple lens construction, but also places restrictions on zoom magnification and size reduction.

Front group rotational extension

The lens barrel section holding the front lens group rotates to move the front group backward and forward during focusing. This method of focusing is also used only in zoom lenses.

Internal focusing (IF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned between the front lens group and the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Rear focusing (RF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned behind the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.