smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro WR

Macro lens • Digital era • Discontinued

Abbreviations

SMC Multi-layer anti-reflection coating is applied to the surfaces of lens elements. This anti-reflection coating increases light transmission, eliminates flare and ghosting, and maintains color consistence among all lens models.
D FA Autofocus lens which is optimized for Pentax digital SLR cameras but can be also used on Pentax film SLR cameras. Learn more
MACRO Macro lens. Designed specially for shooting close-ups of small subjects but can be also used in other genres of photography, not necessarily requiring focusing at close distances. Learn more
WR Water-Resistant lens.

Sample photos

F/4
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/2.8
F/4.5
F/4.5
F/5.6
F/11

Model history (6)

smc Pentax-A 100mm F/2.8 Macro1:1A7 - 70.31m⌀58 1985 
smc Pentax-F 100mm F/2.8 Macro1:1A9 - 80.31m⌀58 1987 
smc Pentax-FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro1:1A9 - 80.31m⌀58 1991 
smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro1:1
aka Schneider-Kreuznach D-Xenon 100mm F/2.8 Macro
A9 - 80.30m⌀49 2004 
smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro WR1:1A9 - 80.30m⌀49 2009 
HD Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 ED AW Macro1:1A10 - 80.30m⌀49 2022 
HD Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 ED AW Macro Silver (300 units)1:1 2022 

Features highlight

Fast
F.E.
Macro 1:1
Body AF
QFS
8 blades
WR
SP
⌀49
filters
TC

Specification

Production details:
Announced:December 2009
Production status: Discontinued
Original name:SMC PENTAX-DFA MACRO 1:2.8 100mm WR
System:Pentax K (1975)
Optical design:
Focal length:100mm
Speed:F/2.8
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Mount and Flange focal distance:Pentax K [45.5mm]
Diagonal angle of view:24.4°
Lens construction:9 elements in 8 groups
Floating element system
On Pentax K APS-C [1.53x] cameras:
35mm equivalent focal length:153mm (in terms of field of view)
35mm equivalent speed:F/4.3 (in terms of depth of field)
Diagonal angle of view:16.1°
Diaphragm mechanism:
Diaphragm type:Automatic
Aperture control:None; the aperture is controlled from the camera
Number of blades:8 (eight)
Focusing:
Closest focusing distance:0.303m
Closest working distance:0.13m
Magnification ratio:1:1 (life-size)
Focusing modes:Autofocus, manual focus
Autofocus motor:In-camera motor
Manual focus control:Focusing ring
Focus mode selector:None; focusing mode is set from the camera
Quick-Shift Focus System (QFS):Yes
Shake Reduction (SR):
Built-in SR:-
Physical characteristics:
Weight:340g
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀65×80.5mm
Weather sealing:Water-resistant barrel
Super Protect (SP) coating:Yes
Accessories:
Filters:Screw-type 49mm
Lens hood:PH-RBE49 - Bayonet-type round
Teleconverters:HD Pentax-DA 1.4X AF Rear Converter AW → 140mm F/3.9
Source of data:
Manufacturer's technical data.

Compared to the smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro

  • smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro WR
    • Advantages: 2
    • Disadvantages: 0
  • Manufacturer description #1

    GOLDEN, COLORADO (December 9, 2009)…PENTAX Imaging Company has announced the smc PENTAX D FA MACRO 100mm F2.8 WR lens designed for use with PENTAX digital SLR cameras. Combining a high-quality exterior finish with PENTAX-original weather-resistant construction, this new macro lens is especially useful for the demands of outdoor photography.

    This PENTAX macro lens features a high-grade, aluminum barrel with the high-quality, exclusive exterior design and finish unique to the PENTAX D FA series lenses. Further, the entire mechanism of the focus ring has been reviewed and upgraded to assure flawless manual-focus operation. For improved performance, the PENTAX D FA MACRO 100mm F2.8 WR is the first PENTAX interchangeable macro lens featuring a completely rounded diaphragm blade to create a natural, beautiful bokeh at wide apertures, while minimizing the streaking effect of point light sources.

    PENTAX WR lenses feature simplified weather-resistant construction to repel water and moisture. Combined with a PENTAX weather-resistant K-7, K20D, K200D or K10D digital SLR camera body, the lens performs well in damp, inclement outdoor conditions including rain, mist, water spray and splashes.

    The lens also features the PENTAX-original SP (Super Protect) surface coating to repel dust, water and grease and to minimize fingerprints.

    Other significant features of this latest WR lens include:

    • Mounted on a PENTAX digital SLR camera body, this lens offers a focal length equivalent to 153mm in the 35mm format for high-quality, true-to-life images, while minimizing flare and ghost images. The maximum life-size magnification allows photographers to capture dramatic close-up images with great ease.
    • A working distance of just over five inches (13 cm) facilitates close-up photography of subjects including flora, insects, and wildlife.
    • The PENTAX-developed Quick-Shift Focus System for instant switching to manual-focus operation after the subject is captured in focus by the camera’s AF system.
    • An image circle to accommodate 35mm film-format camera image size.
    • Compatibility with the macro adapter included in the PENTAX AF160FC dedicated Auto Macro Ring Flash.

    Manufacturer description #2

    December 10, 2009 - HOYA CORPORATION PENTAX Products is pleased to announce the launch of the smc PENTAX-D FA MACRO 100mmF2.8 WR, an interchangeable macro lens designed for use with PENTAX digital and film-format SLR cameras. Combining a high-quality exterior finish with a PENTAX-original simplified weather-resistant construction, this new macro lens is especially useful for demanding outdoor applications.

    Major Features

    1. High-quality exterior finish with high-grade aluminum barrel

    This macro lens features a high-grade chipped-aluminum barrel, and its exterior design has been greatly refined from that of the existing D FA-series lenses to deliver a more sophisticated, exclusive appearance. The entire mechanism of the focus ring has been reviewed and upgraded to assure flawless manual-focus operation.

    2. Simplified weather-resistant construction for greater reliability outdoors

    This macro lens features a simplified weather-resistant construction, which minimizes the intrusion of water and moisture into the lens barrel. By mounting the lens on a PENTAX weather-resistant digital SLR camera body, the user is assured of greater durability and reliability when shooting in rain or mist, as well as at locations subject to a spray or splash. The lens also features the PENTAX-original SP (Super Protect) coating on its front surface to repel dust, water and grease and to minimize fingerprints and cosmetic spots. These features make the lens ideal for all types of outdoor applications.

    3. Rounded diaphragm blade to produce a beautiful bokeh

    The PENTAX-D FA MACRO 100mmF2.8 WR is the first PENTAX interchangeable macro lens featuring a completely rounded diaphragm blade. This creates a natural, beautiful bokeh, while minimizing the streaking effect of point light sources.

    4. High-quality image description

    When mounted on a PENTAX digital SLR camera body, this lens offers a focal length equivalent to 153mm in the 35mm format. Inheriting the high-performance optics of the renowned smc PENTAX-D FA MACRO 100mmF2.8 lens, it delivers high-quality, true-to-life images, while minimizing annoying flare and ghost images — problems common in digital SLR photography. Its maximum magnification of life size allows the photographer to capture dramatic close-up images with great ease.

    5. Other features

    1. A working distance of 13cm (in life-size applications) to facilitate the shooting of unapproachable subjects, such as insects
    2. The PENTAX-developed Quick-Shift Focus System for instant switching to manual-focus operation after the subject is captured in focus by the camera’s AF system
    3. An image circle accommodating the image size of 35mm film-format cameras
    4. Compatibility with the macro adapter included in the PENTAX AF160FC Dedicated Auto Macro Flash

    Manufacturer description #3

    This telephoto lens with ultra-close focusing capabilities is a multi-talented player, delivering clear, high-contrast images from both telephoto and macro perspectives. It is ideal for the close- up photographer looking for full-size subject magnification and outstanding depth of field control for the smallest of subjects. This lens has the same outstanding characteristics as its 50mm sister model, and has managed to minimize the weight and size when compared to other macro lenses. This lens also produces a 1:1 magnification ratio and features the unique PENTAX FREE technology; ensuring exceptional focusing distance to infinity by effectively reducing annoying aberrations at any focusing distance.

    With 150mm focal length in the 35mm format, the photographer enjoys the comfort and safety of a greater working distance to the subject, making it ideal for photographing insects, for example. The D FA 100mm has, like its sister model, a switch that locks the focus setting, making it impossible to inadvertently change the focus while concentrating on getting the perfect shot. This lens is equipped with protective seals and is resistant to humidity

    Manufacturer description #4

    High-quality macro lens using simple drip-proof construction. This lens enables 1:1 (1X) photography at distances up to 13cm from the lens to the subject. The refined aluminum alloy body has a simple drip-proof construction and is built with a compact, lightweight design without an iris ring. This reduces ghosting and flare for enabling superior imaging performance for sharp images with high contrast at all shooting distances. A round iris diaphragm is used for rendering natural out-of-focus (bokeh) background effect.

    New sleek machined aluminum outer casing is used for a refined lens appearance. *The focus mechanism has been completely revised for enabling smooth focusing when using the manual focus and a comfortable sense of operation.

    This lens uses a simple drip-proof construction for preventing water from getting inside the lens. Combined with PENTAX digital SLR cameras also using a drip-proof construction enables use in rainy or foggy conditions, or other locations exposed to water for enhanced durability and reliability.

    This lens has a focal length equivalent to 153mm in the 35mm film format.

    The FREE (fixed rear element extension) focusing system is used to minimize ghosting and flare and provide clear, high-quality images from the infinity end to macro distances. Closeups up to a maximum of 1:1 (1X) are possible. The working distance is longer than the macro of 50mm for enabling effective shooting of subjects that are difficult to approach.

    A new round iris diaphragm is used from open to F5.6. This reduces the beams of light when shooting point light sources for enabling a more natural out-of-focus (bokeh) effect.

    A SP (super protect) coating is used on the front lens for repelling water and oils to enable shooting with peace of mind even in outdoor environments.

    If you turn the focus ring after focusing by the AF, focusing instantly switches to the manual focus. This enables smooth focusing operations without the need for a switching operation.

    Pentax-D FA series

    The fifth generation of autofocus lenses designed for Pentax digital SLR cameras, but compatible with Pentax 35mm film SLR cameras. Introduced after the Pentax *ist D in 2004.

    • Lens barrels made from engineering plastic;
    • Weather-resistant designs;
    • Do not have an aperture ring. The aperture is controlled from the camera;
    • Automatic focusing using in-lens motor (except for macro lenses which rely on in-camera motor);
    • Quick-Shift Focus System with Pentax digital SLR cameras.

    Travellers' choice

    • Fast speed (F/2.8)
    • Lightweight (340g)
    • Water-resistant barrel
    • Super Protect (SP) coating

    From the editor

    Version of the smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro lens which has a new chipped-aluminum water-resistant barrel and Super Protect coating, but lacks the aperture ring and CLAMP switch. The overall build quality is so high that the lens actually deserves the Limited designation. The entire mechanism of the focusing ring was reviewed and upgraded. The angle of rotation of the ring is now about 270 degrees which is more than enough to perform very precise manual focusing. Focus limiter is still missing, though.

    Compared to other macro lenses in the Pentax K system

    Other macro lenses in the Pentax K system

    Sorted by focal length and speed, in ascending order

    Pentax K mount (9)
    smc Pentax-F 50mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀521:1 @ 0.195m 1988 Compare04
    smc Pentax-FA 50mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀521:1 @ 0.195m 1991 Compare04
    smc Pentax-D FA 50mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀491:1 @ 0.195m 2004 Compare32
    smc Pentax-FA 100mm F/3.5 Macro ⌀491:2 @ 0.43mPro 1998 Compare24
    smc Pentax-F 100mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀581:1 @ 0.306mPro 1987 Compare26
    smc Pentax-FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀581:1 @ 0.306mPro 1991 Compare26
    smc Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 Macro ⌀491:1 @ 0.303m
    aka Schneider-Kreuznach D-Xenon 100mm F/2.8 Macro
    Pro 2004 Compare01
    HD Pentax-D FA 100mm F/2.8 ED AW Macro ⌀491:1 @ 0.303mPro 2022 Compare00
    smc Pentax-FA* 200mm F/4 ED [IF] Macro ⌀671:1 @ 0.5mPro 2000 Compare27

    Lenses with similar focal length

    Sorted by manufacturer name

    Pentax K mount (9)
    Cosina AF 100mm F/3.5 MC Macro ⌀491:2 @ 0.43m
    aka Phoenix AF 100mm F/3.5 Macro
    aka Promaster Spectrum 7 AF 100mm F/3.5 MC Macro
    aka Soligor AF 100mm F/3.5 MC Macro
    aka Tokina AF 100mm F/3.5 Macro
    aka Vivitar AF 100mm F/3.5 MC Macro
    aka Voigtlander Macro-Dynar AF 100mm F/3.5 VMC
    Pro Compare34
    Sigma 105mm F/2.8 EX DG OS HSM Macro ⌀621:1 @ 0.312mPro 2011 Compare23
    Sigma 105mm F/2.8 EX DG Macro ⌀581:1 @ 0.313mPro 2004 Compare16
    Sigma 105mm F/2.8 EX Macro ⌀581:1 @ 0.313mPro 1998 Compare16
    Tamron SP AF 90mm F/2.8 Di Macro 272E ⌀551:1 @ 0.29mPro 2004 Compare14
    Tamron SP AF 90mm F/2.8 Macro 172E ⌀551:1 @ 0.29mPro 2000 Compare16
    Tamron SP AF 90mm F/2.5 Macro 52E ⌀521:2 @ 0.39mPro 1990 Compare13
    Tamron SP AF 90mm F/2.8 Macro 72E ⌀551:1 @ 0.29mPro 1996 Compare15
    Tokina AT-X Macro AF 100mm F/2.8 [IF] ⌀551:2 @ 0.35mPro 1992 Compare05
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    Chromatic aberration

    There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

    Spherical aberration

    Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

    Astigmatism

    Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

    Coma

    Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

    Curvature of field

    Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

    Distortion

    Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

    The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

    Diffraction

    Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

    Doublet

    Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

    Dynamic range

    Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

    Resolving power

    Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

    Vignetting

    Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

    Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

    Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

    Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

    Flare

    Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

    Ghosting

    Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

    Retrofocus design

    Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

    Anastigmat

    A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

    By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

    Rectilinear design

    Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

    Focus shift

    A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

    Transmittance

    The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

    Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

    When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

    The components of MTF are:

    The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

    Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

    Veiling glare

    Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

    Anti-reflection coating

    When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

    Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

    Circular fisheye

    Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

    The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

    Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

    Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

    Extension ring

    Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

    View camera

    A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

    135 cartridge-loaded film

    43.27 24 36
    • Introduced: 1934
    • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
    • Aspect ratio: 3:2
    • Diagonal: 43.27mm
    • Area: 864mm2
    • Double perforated
    • 8 perforations per frame

    120 roll film

    71.22 44 56
    • Introduced: 1901
    • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
    • Aspect ratio: 11:14
    • Diagonal: 71.22mm
    • Area: 2464mm2
    • Unperforated

    120 roll film

    79.2 56 56
    • Introduced: 1901
    • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
    • Aspect ratio: 1:1
    • Diagonal: 79.2mm
    • Area: 3136mm2
    • Unperforated

    120 roll film

    89.64 56 70
    • Introduced: 1901
    • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
    • Aspect ratio: 5:4
    • Diagonal: 89.64mm
    • Area: 3920mm2
    • Unperforated

    220 roll film

    71.22 44 56
    • Introduced: 1965
    • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
    • Aspect ratio: 11:14
    • Diagonal: 71.22mm
    • Area: 2464mm2
    • Unperforated
    • Double the length of 120 roll film

    220 roll film

    79.2 56 56
    • Introduced: 1965
    • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
    • Aspect ratio: 1:1
    • Diagonal: 79.2mm
    • Area: 3136mm2
    • Unperforated
    • Double the length of 120 roll film

    220 roll film

    89.64 56 70
    • Introduced: 1965
    • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
    • Aspect ratio: 5:4
    • Diagonal: 89.64mm
    • Area: 3920mm2
    • Unperforated
    • Double the length of 120 roll film

    Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

    The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

    Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

    The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

    Cross-coupling button

    With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

    M & X sync

    The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

    In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

    In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

    X sync

    The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

    In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

    In-camera motor

    Unable to follow the link

    You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

    Cannot perform comparison

    Cannot compare the lens to itself.

    Image stabilizer

    A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

    The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

    Original name

    Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

    Format

    Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

    35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

    APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

    Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

    Angle of view

    Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

    As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

    A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

    This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

    where:

    CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
    FL – focal length of a lens.

    Mount

    A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

    A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

    Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

    Lens construction

    Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

    Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

    Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

    Focal length

    The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

    Speed

    The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

    In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

    Floating element system

    Provides correction of aberrations and ensures constantly high image quality at the entire range of focusing distances from infinity down to the closest focusing distance. It is particularly effective for the correction of field curvature that tends to occur with large-aperture, wide-angle lenses when shooting at close ranges.

    The basic mechanism of the floating element system is also incorporated into the internal and rear focusing methods.

    Closest focusing distance

    The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

    Closest working distance

    The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

    Magnification ratio

    Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

    Manual focus override in autofocus mode

    Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

    Manual focus override in autofocus mode

    Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

    Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

    Manual diaphragm

    The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

    Preset diaphragm

    The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

    Semi-automatic diaphragm

    The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

    Automatic diaphragm

    The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

    Fixed diaphragm

    The aperture setting is fixed at F/2.8 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

    Number of blades

    As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

    Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

    At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

    Weight

    Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

    Maximum diameter x Length

    Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

    For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

    Weather sealing

    A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

    Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

    Fluorine coating

    Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

    Filters

    Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

    Lens hood

    A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

    The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

    Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

    Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

    Teleconverters

    Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

    Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

    Lens caps

    Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.