Nikon AF-S Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/2.8G IF-ED VR

Macro lens • Announced in February 2006 • Digital era

AF-S The lens is equipped with Silent Wave Motor.
MICRO Macro lens. Designed specially for shooting close-ups of small subjects but can be also used in other genres of photography, not necessarily requiring focusing at close distances.
G The lens does not have an aperture control ring and is intended for use on Nikon digital SLR cameras that allow the lens aperture to be adjusted via the camera's command dial. Relays subject-to-camera distance information to the camera, like a D-type lens.
IF The lens incorporates internal focusing.
ED The lens incorporates low dispersion elements.
VR The lens is equipped with Vibration Reduction.

Model history

Nikon AF-S Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/2.8G IF-ED VR1:1A14 - 120.314mE62 2006 
Nikon AF Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/2.8D1:1A9 - 80.314mE52 1993 
Nikon AF Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/2.81:1A9 - 80.314mE52 1990 
Nikon AI-S Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/2.81:2A10 - 90.41mE52 1983 

Nikon N2020

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-501
Announced: 1986
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 1 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 148.5x97.5x54.5mm
Weight: 610g

Nikon N4004

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-401
Announced: 1987
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 1 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x102x65.5mm
Weight: 645g

Nikon F4

35mm AF film SLR camera

Announced: 1988
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 168.5x117.5x76.5mm
Weight: 1090g

Nikon N8008

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-801
Announced: 1988
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 153.6x102.5x67.5mm
Weight: 695g

Nikon N4004S

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-401S
Announced: 1989
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 1 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x102x65.5mm
Weight: 650g

Nikon N6006

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-601
Announced: 1990
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154.5x100x66.5mm
Weight: 650g

Nikon N5005

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-401X
Announced: 1991
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x102x65mm
Weight: 647g

Nikon N8008S

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F-801S
Announced: 1991
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x103x67mm
Weight: 695g

Nikon N90

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F90
Announced: 1992
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x106x69mm
Weight: 755g

Nikon N50

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F50
Announced: 1994
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 149x96x70mm
Weight: 580g

Nikon N70

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F70
Announced: 1994
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 151x103x70mm
Weight: 585g

Nikon N90S

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F90X
Announced: 1994
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 154x106x69mm
Weight: 755g

Nikon F5

35mm AF film SLR camera

Announced: 1996
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 158x149x79mm
Weight: 1210g

Nikon F100

35mm AF film SLR camera

Announced: 1999
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 155x113x66mm
Weight: 785g

Nikon N60

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F60
Announced: 1999
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 148.5x96x69mm
Weight: 575g

Nikon N65

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F65
Announced: 2000
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 139.5x92.5x65.5mm
Weight: 395g

Nikon N80

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F80
Announced: 2000
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/4000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 141.5x98.5x71mm
Weight: 515g

Nikon N55

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F55
Announced: 2002
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 129x92x65mm
Weight: 350g

Nikon N75

35mm AF film SLR camera

Also known as: Nikon F75
Announced: 2003
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/2000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 131x92.5x65mm
Weight: 380g

Nikon F6

35mm AF film SLR camera

Announced: 2004
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 24mm
Shutter type: Focal-plane
Shutter model: Electronically controlled
Speeds: 30 - 1/8000 + B
Exposure metering: Through-the-lens (TTL)
Exposure modes: Programmed Auto
Aperture-priority Auto
Shutter-priority Auto
Manual
Dimensions: 157x119x78.5mm
Weight: 975g

Nikon D3

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Aug 2007
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D700

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Jul 2008
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D3X

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Dec 2008
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 6048 × 4032 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D3s

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Oct 2009
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4256 × 2832 - 12 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D4

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Jan 2012
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D800

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Feb 2012
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D800E

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Feb 2012
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D600

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Sep 2012
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D610

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Oct 2013
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon Df

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Nov 2013
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D4s

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Feb 2014
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 36 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 4928 × 3280 - 16 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D810

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Jun 2014
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D750

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Sep 2014
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 6016 × 4016 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D810A

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Feb 2015
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 24mm
Resolution: 7360 × 4912 - 36 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D5

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Jan 2016
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5588 × 3712 - 21 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D850

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Aug 2017
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 8256 × 5504 - 45 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D780

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Jan 2020
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 6048 × 4024 - 24 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Nikon D6

35mm AF digital SLR camera

Announced: Feb 2020
Mount: Nikon F
Format: 35.9 × 23.9mm
Resolution: 5568 × 3712 - 21 MP
Sensor type: CMOS
Image stabilizer: -

Designed for

Click to expand or collapse section(s)

Features highlight

1:1
IF
SWM
MFO
Focus limiter
VR 4 stops

Specification

Optical design
Maximum format: 35mm full frame
Diagonal angle of view: 23.3° (35mm full frame)
15.3° (Nikon F APS-C)
Lens construction: 14 elements - 12 groups
1 ED
Mechanical design
Mount: Nikon F
Diaphragm mechanism
Diaphragm control system: Mechanical
Number of blades: 9
Focusing
Closest focusing distance: 0.314m
Closest working distance: 0.154m
Maximum magnification ratio: 1:1 at the closest focusing distance
Focusing method: Internal focusing (IF)
Focusing modes: Autofocus, manual focus
Manual focus control: Focusing ring
Autofocus motor: Silent Wave Motor
Focus mode selector: M/A - M
Manual focus override in autofocus mode: Yes
Focusing distance range limiter: FULL;0.5-
Image stabilizer
Vibration Reduction (VR): Yes
VR features: VR NORMAL
VR efficiency: up to 4 stops
Physical characteristics
Weight: 720g
Maximum diameter x Length: Ø83×116mm
Weather sealing: Water-resistant mount
Fluorine coating: -
Accessories
Filters: Screw-type 62mm
Lens hood: Bayonet-type HB-38 (petal-shaped)

Manufacturer description

February 21, 2006

Nikon Unveils First Ever Macro Lens With Vibration Reduction

MELVILLE, NY – Professional photographers and enthusiasts seeking the latest opportunity to enhance their extreme close-up and general photography possibilities can rely on Nikon's new 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor. Nikon Inc. today introduced the world's first macro lens equipped with Nikon Vibration Reduction (VR) and Silent Wave Motor (SWM) systems. Engineered for use with Nikon digital and 35mm film SLR cameras, this lens offers a host of Nikon's advanced optical features and technologies including Nano Crystal Coat, Extra Low Dispersion (ED) glass and Internal Focusing (IF) design.

"We are excited to offer the 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor as the newest addition to Nikon's range of high performance Nikkor lenses that deliver unmatched optical performance and advanced capabilities. Extreme close-up photography is one of the most demanding and popular forms of photography, and this new lens significantly extends the range of conditions under which professionals and enthusiasts can achieve outstanding results," said Edward Fasano, general manager for Marketing, SLR Systems Products, at Nikon Inc. "With enhanced VR II technology built into the lens, photographers can shoot hand-held at shutter speeds up to four stops slower than would otherwise be possible, and still get razor sharp pictures."

Combined with the Silent Wave Motor technology and Internal Focusing system, the 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor provides handling characteristics that better enable superior close-up photography under a broad range low-light conditions. And like other high-performance Micro-Nikkor lenses, the new 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor is perfectly suited for general photography as well.

The 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor features Nikon's enhanced Vibration Reduction System (VR II) which substantially improves high-quality hand held close-up shooting. The VR II function minimizes the negative effects of camera shake by offering users the ability to take pictures at shutter speeds as many as 4 stops slower* than would otherwise be possible, without the image degrading blur associated with slow shutter speeds. Nikon's VR technology further enhances picture taking potential with a choice of two modes to match most shooting conditions. VR Normal Mode primarily compensates for camera shake, and includes automatic panning detection, as well as automatic tripod detection. VR Active Mode effectively compensates for vibration in situations where it is more pronounced and more frequent, such as when shooting from a moving vehicle.

The addition of SWM delivers faster and quieter auto-focusing, along with quick switching between autofocus and manual operation. Near-silent focusing can also be attributed to the Internal Focus (IF) design which also provides a constant lens length and eliminates front lens rotation, making it an ideal lens for use with the new Nikon Wireless Close-Up Speedlight System. Together, the SMW, VR II and IF components provide the photographer sharp images at close range (macro shooting focus of 31cm) without disturbing the subject during focus.

The 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor optical formula is highlighted with Nikon's Nano Crystal Coat and Extra Low Dispersion (ED) glass. These highly advanced optical technologies provide higher-quality resolution and high-contrast images by reducing chromatic aberrations and virtually eliminating reflections caused by multiple internal lens elements.

105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor: Major Features

  • The world's first macro lens equipped with SWM and VR systems
  • VR II Vibration Reduction technology allows photographers to shoot hand-held at as many as 4 shutter speeds slower* (at near infinity to 1/3x shooting and approx. 1 step at near 1:1) than would otherwise be possible, assuring dramatically sharper hand-held images.
  • Incorporates Silent Wave Motor (SWM) for fast and quiet autofocusing, and quick switching between autofocus and manual operation.
  • Engineered for use with Nikon digital and 35mm film SLR cameras.
  • Offers a 105mm focal length (picture angle equivalent to 157.5mm with Nikon DX format).
  • Design incorporates 14 elements in 12 groups (with 1 ED glass and 1 Nano Crystal Coat-deposited lens elements).
  • ED glass and Nano Crystal Coat combine to minimize chromatic aberration, providing higher resolution and high-contrast images.
  • Employs a nine-blade rounded diaphragm opening ensuring that out-of-focus elements appear more natural.
  • Offers a Maximum reproduction ratio of 1:1.
  • Enables focusing from as close as 31cm (12.2 in.) from the subject through its entire focal range.
  • M/A mode for rapid switching between autofocus and manual focus operation.
  • Internal Focusing (IF) design simplifies the use of circular polarizing filters.
  • HB-38 Bayonet Lens Hood (included) greatly reduces stray light, enhancing image quality.
  • Supplied with CL-1020 Flexible Lens Pouch

From the editor

A versatile short telephoto prime lens - can be used both for portraiture and macrophotography with magnification ratio of 1:1 (without additional accessory).

Note: The maximum efficiency of optical image stabilizer could be obtained at focusing distance range from 3m to infinity. The effects of optical image stabilizer will decrease gradually at focusing distances less than 3m.

Typical application

portraits, macrophotography and product photography

Slowest shutter speed when shooting handheld

VR OFF11/21/41/81/151/301/601/1251/2501/5001/1000+
VR ON11/21/41/81/151/301/601/1251/2501/5001/1000+

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35mm full frame

43.27 24 36
  • Dimensions: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm

Travellers' choice

Note

Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.

Professional lens

One of the best short telephoto macro primes

According to lens-db.com; among lenses designed for the same maximum format and mount.

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Quality control issues

The manufacturer of this lens does not provide adequate quality control. If you do decide to purchase this lens, do not order it online, but choose the best copy available in the store. In any case, there may also be problems with the build quality, and warranty repairs can take months.

Model produced in a small batch. It is collectible and can only be found on the secondary market.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film. The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Classic focal length

100 and 105mm are the classic focal lengths of short telephoto lenses for 35mm full-frame cameras. Models of this class occupy an intermediate position between lenses with focal lengths of 85 and 135mm and, as a rule, do not offer a record speed. At the same time, they are able to provide smoother and more pleasing background blur compared to the 85mm models, so don't discount these lenses.

Silent Wave Motor

Silent Wave Motor is available in variants with or without a gear system. Nikon never specifies which variant is used in a particular lens, however, in budget models, as a rule, gear-type Silent Wave Motor is used, without manual focus override in autofocus mode. This can be assumed by the presence of the A - M switch on the lens barrel, instead of M/A - M.

Focusing distance range limiter

The lens features focusing distance range limiter which allows to choose between the following focusing distance ranges:

FULLFull range of focusing distances.
0.5m - ∞Range of focusing distances suitable for shooting distant subjects.

By setting the suitable focusing distance range, the actual autofocusing time can be shorter.

M/A - M

M/AAutofocus mode that allows switching to manual focus with virtually no time lag - even during autofocus servo operation and regardless of autofocus mode in use.
MManual focus mode.

Aspherical elements

Aspherical elements (ASPH, XA, XGM) are used in wide-angle lenses for correction of distortion and in large-aperture lenses for correction of spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma, thus ensuring excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. The effect of the aspherical element is determined by its position within the optical formula: the more the aspherical element moves away from the aperture stop, the more it influences distortion; close to the aperture stop it can be particularly used to correct spherical aberration. Aspherical element can substitute one or several regular spherical elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Use of aspherical elements has its downsides: it leads to non-uniform rendering of out-of-focus highlights. This effect usually appears as "onion-like" texture of concentric rings or "wooly-like" texture and is caused by very slight defects in the surface of aspherical element. It is difficult to predict such effect, but usually it occurs when the highlights are small enough and far enough out of focus.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Canon's Super UD, Nikon's Super ED, Pentax' Super ED, Sigma's FLD ("F" Low Dispersion), Sony' Super ED and Tamron's XLD glasses are the highest level low dispersion glasses available with extremely high light transmission. These optical glasses have a performance equal to fluorite glass.

High-refraction low-dispersion elements

High-refraction low-dispersion elements (HLD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

High Index, High Dispersion elements

High Index, High Dispersion elements (HID) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Anomalous partial dispersion elements

Anomalous partial dispersion elements (AD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Fluorite elements

Synthetic fluorite elements (FL) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. Compared with optical glass, fluorite lenses have a considerably lower refraction index, low dispersion and extraordinary partial dispersion, and high transmission of infrared and ultraviolet light. They are also significantly lighter than optical glass.

According to Nikon, fluorite easily cracks and is sensitive to temperature changes that can adversely affect focusing by altering the lens' refractive index. To avoid this, Canon, as the manufacturer most widely using fluorite in its telephoto lenses, never uses fluorite in the front and rear lens elements, and the white coating is applied to the lens barrels to reflect light and prevent the lens from overheating.

Short-wavelength refractive elements

High and specialized-dispersion elements (SR) refract light with wavelengths shorter than that of blue to achieve highly precise chromatic aberration compensation. This technology also results in smaller and lighter lenses.

Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics

Organic Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics material (BR Optics) placed between convex and concave elements made from conventional optical glass provides more efficient correction of longitudinal chromatic aberrations in comparison with conventional technology.

Diffraction elements

Diffraction elements (DO, PF) cancel chromatic aberrations at various wavelengths. This technology results in smaller and lighter lenses in comparison with traditional designs with no compromise in image quality.

High refractive index elements

High refractive index elements (HR, HRI, XR etc) minimize field curvature and spherical aberration. High refractive index element can substitute one or several regular elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Apodization element

Apodization element (APD) is in fact a radial gradient filter. It practically does not change the characteristics of light beam passing through its central part but absorbs the light at the periphery. It sort of softens the edges of the aperture making the transition from foreground to background zone very smooth and results in very attractive, natural looking and silky smooth bokeh.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance from the lens mount to the film or sensor can also be different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. A magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size". A lens is not considered to be "true" macro unless it can achieve at least life-size magnification.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Electromagnetic diaphragm control system

Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.

Convex protruding front element

The convex front element protrudes from the lens barrel, making it impossible to use filters.

Fixed focus

There is no helicoid in this lens and everything is in focus from the closest focusing distance to infinity.

Overall linear extension

The entire lens optical system moves straight backward and forward when focusing is carried out. This is the simplest type of focusing used mainly in wide-angle and standard prime lenses. It has the advantage of introducing relatively little change in aberrations with respect to change in focusing distance. With telephoto and super telephoto lenses this method becomes less beneficial in terms of operability because of the increased size and weight of the lens system.

Front group linear extension

The rear group remains fixed and only the front group moves straight backward and forward during focusing. This method is primarily used in zoom lenses and allows to design comparatively simple lens construction, but also places restrictions on zoom magnification and size reduction.

Front group rotational extension

The lens barrel section holding the front lens group rotates to move the front group backward and forward during focusing. This method of focusing is also used only in zoom lenses.

Internal focusing (IF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned between the front lens group and the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Rear focusing (RF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned behind the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Efficiency of image stabilizer

The efficiency of image stabilizer is measured in stops and each stop corresponds to a two-times increase of shutter speed. For example, if you are shooting at focal length of 80mm and it is known that the efficiency of image stabilizer is 3 stops, it means that during handheld shooting at such focal length you can use shutter speed of 1/10 second which is exactly 23 times longer than the shutter speed 1/80 second needed to obtain sharp image in sufficient lighting conditions.

Hybrid IS

The image stabilizer has Hybrid IS technology which corrects not only angle but also shift camera shake, which is more pronounced in close-range shooting when a camera moves parallel to the imaging scene. Hybrid IS dramatically enhances the effects of image stabilization during shooting, including macro shooting, which had proven difficult for conventional image stabilization technologies.

XY-Shift

The image stabilizer has XY-Shift technology which corrects not only angle but also shift camera shake, which is more pronounced in close-range shooting when a camera moves parallel to the imaging scene. XY-Shift dramatically enhances the effects of image stabilization during shooting, including macro shooting, which had proven difficult for conventional image stabilization technologies.

Dynamic IS

The image stabilizer has Dynamic IS technology which especially effective when shooting while walking because it compensates strong camera shake. Dynamic IS activates automatically when the camera is set to movie shooting.

Mode 1

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake. Mainly effective for shooting still subjects.

Mode 2

Corrects vertical camera shake during following shots in a horizontal direction. Corrects horizontal camera shake during following shots in a vertical direction.

Mode 2

Corrects vertical camera shake during following shots in a horizontal direction.

Mode 2 (Intelligent OS)

The lens incorporates Intelligent OS with algorithm capable of panning in all directions. In Mode 2, the movements of subjects can be captured with panning effects even when the camera is moved horizontally, vertically, or diagonally — regardless of the position of the lens.

Mode 3

Corrects camera shake only during exposure. During panning shots, corrects camera shake during exposure only in one direction the same as Mode 2. Effective for following fast and irregulary moving subjects.

Panning Detection

The image stabilizer automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction

Tripod Detection

It is often thought that image blur caused by camera shake can be prevented by using a tripod. Actually, however, even using a tripod may result in image blur because of tripod vibration caused by mirror or shutter movement at the time of exposure. The image stabilizer automatically differentiates the frequency of the vibration from that of camera shake, and changes algorithm to correct image blur caused by slight tripod vibration.

VR NORMAL

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake. Automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction.

VR ACTIVE

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake when shooting from a moving vehicle, or some other unstable position. Panning is not detected.

VR SPORT

Allows a continuous shooting frame rate and release time lag similar to those that are possible when image stabilizer is turned off. Automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction.

VR TRIPOD

It is often thought that image blur caused by camera shake can be prevented by using a tripod. Actually, however, even using a tripod may result in image blur because of tripod vibration caused by mirror or shutter movement at the time of exposure. The image stabilizer automatically differentiates the frequency of the vibration from that of camera shake, and changes algorithm to correct image blur caused by slight tripod vibration.