|Maximum format:||35mm full frame|
|Mount and Flange focal distance:||Leica M [27.8mm]|
|Diagonal angle of view:||110.5° (35mm full frame)|
|94.6° (Leica M APS-H)|
|Lens construction:||3 elements - 3 groups|
|Number of blades:||-|
|Coupled to the rangefinder:||-|
|Closest focusing distance:||0.2m|
|Maximum magnification ratio:||<No data>|
|Focusing method:||<No data>|
|Focusing modes:||Manual focus only|
|Manual focus control:||Focusing ring|
|Maximum diameter x Length:||<No data>|
|Filters:||Removable front filters are not accepted|
|Lens hood:||Not available|
From the series of articles on lens names: Distagon, Biogon and Hologon by H.H. Nasse (Carl Zeiss AG, Camera lens division, December 2011):
The name of the lens is derived in part from the Greek word "holos", meaning everything or "complete". It was built from just three elements, two highly curved, very thick negative meniscus lenses on the outside and a positive lens in the middle. One might describe it as an inverse triplet.
However, the simple appearance of its design does not mean that it was easy to make. The precision requirements for the shape of the lenses and their centering are extremely high. Because of the difficulties of production, the Hologon 16mm for the Contax G, which came later, had five lenses, a technical "trick" to simplify manufacturing, with the cemented elements made of the same types of glass.
The importance of the beam inclination angle <...> is the reason why a comeback of some great legendary objectives is hardly imaginable. The Hologon from 1966 was an extreme wide-angle lens with a 100-degree diagonal field angle, which was popular for its high definition up to the corners of the image and its complete absense of distortion. Thus it's no surprise that we are asked time and again when it will be reintroduced. Unfortunately, we must disappoint its fans, because a beam inclination of 55-degree in the corner of the image is not compatible with digital sensors, at least not today.
The Hologon lens was designed by Erhard Glatzel and others at Zeiss in 1966 and produced in 1969 as a fixed 15mm f/8 lens for Zeiss Ikon Contarex Hologon ultrawide cameras. It was a remarkable breakthrough at that time that an extremely wide-angle lens is able to produce photos without any distortion. Leica appreciated the extremely wide-angle and supreme distortion adjustment advantages of this outstanding lens and cooperated with Carl Zeiss to produce a modified Hologon 15mm f/8 lens for Leica M cameras during 1972-1976. Only 225 sets ever produced for Leica M cameras.
The Hologon lens set for Leica M cameras comes with a graduated center filter and an optical viewfinder. The optical viewfinder provides the exact 15mm frame line required to compose accurately. The graduated center filter is effective to reduce the vignetting and chromatic aberration of this ultra wide angle lens.
According to 8th Edition Leica Pocket Book, the lens was not a commercial success due to the significant light fall-off and lack of usability in low light situations.
landscapes, interiors, buildings, cityscapes, travel
Sorted by focal length and speed, in ascending order
|Leica Super-Elmar-M 18mm F/3.8 ASPH.||Pro||2009 ●|
|Leica Super-Elmar-M 21mm F/3.4 ASPH. • E46||Pro||2011 ●|
|Leica Summilux-M 21mm F/1.4 ASPH. • S.VIII||Pro||2008 ●|
|Leitz Wetzlar Super-Angulon 21mm F/3.4 • S.VII, E48||Pro||1963 ●|
|Leitz Elmarit-M 21mm F/2.8 [I] • E49||Pro||1980 ●|
|Leitz / Leica Elmarit-M 21mm F/2.8 [II] • E60||Pro||1987 ●|
|Leica Elmarit-M 21mm F/2.8 ASPH. [III] • E55||Pro||1997 ●|
Sorted by manufacturer name
|Cosina Voigtlander Super Wide-Heliar 15mm F/4.5 Aspherical II VM • ⌀52||Pro||2009 ●|
|Cosina Voigtlander Super Wide-Heliar 15mm F/4.5 Aspherical III VM • ⌀58||Pro||2015 ●|
|Carl Zeiss Distagon T* 15mm F/2.8 ZM • E72||Pro||2004 ●|
|Cosina Voigtlander Super Wide-Heliar 15mm F/4.5 Aspherical [LSM]||Pro||1999 ●|
Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.
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Professional full-frame autofocus lenses for Sony mirrorless cameras.
Compact, full-frame manual focus lenses for Sony mirrorless cameras.
Autofocus lenses for Sony and Fujifilm APS-C mirrorless cameras.
Lenses with exceptional workmanship for rangefinder cameras.
Full-frame manual focus lenses specially designed for modern digital SLR cameras with high-resolution sensors. Deliver uncompromising performance, even at full aperture. Offer the standard of quality otherwise only achieved on medium format systems.
Full-frame manual focus lenses specially designed for modern digital SLR cameras with high-resolution sensors. Optimal image performance for all focal lengths.
Full-frame manual focus lenses developed for ambitious photographers and their wide diversity of applications: macro, landscape, architecture, portrait, journalism, fashion and beauty. Enjoyed an outstanding reputation with photographers all over the world for many years. Characterized by classic appearance and high optical performance. Offer an excellent entry into premium class photography.
Zeiss lenses are one-of-a-kind optical masterpieces that are impressive because of their unique Zeiss Look. This is ensured through exceptional optical design combined with selected materials and the highest quality standards.
A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.
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Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.
Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.
35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.
APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.
Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).
Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.
A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).
This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),
CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.
A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.
A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.
Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance can also be different.
The flange focal distance (FFD) is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.
Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.
Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.
Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.
The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.
The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.
In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.
The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.
The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.
Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".
Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.
The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.
The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.
The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.
The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.
The aperture setting is fixed at F/8 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.
As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.
Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.
At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.
Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).
For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.
A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.
Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.
Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.
Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.
A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.
The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.
Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.
Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.
Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.
Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.
Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.