Canon FD TS 35mm F/2.8 S.S.C.

Shift lens • Film era • Discontinued

Abbreviations

FD The lens is designed for Canon 35mm film SLR cameras with the Canon FD mount.
TS Perspective Control.
S.S.C. Multi-layer Super Spectra coating is applied to the surfaces of lens elements. This anti-reflection coating increases light transmission, eliminates flare and ghosting, and maintains color consistence among all lens models.

Model history (2)

Canon FD TS 35mm F/2.8 S.S.C.M9 - 80.30m⌀58 1973 
Canon FDn TS 35mm F/2.8M9 - 80.30m⌀58

Features highlight

Shift -11..0..+11mm
Tilt -10..0..+10°
Lens rotation
Fast
F.E.
MF
Manual
8 blades
⌀58
filters

Specification

Production details:
Announced:March 1973
Production status: Discontinued
Original name:CANON LENS TS 35mm 1:2.8 S.S.C.
System:Canon FD (1971)
Optical design:
Focal length:35mm
Speed:F/2.8
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Mount and Flange focal distance:Canon FD [42mm]
Diagonal angle of view:63.4°
Lens construction:9 elements in 8 groups
Floating element system
Diaphragm mechanism:
Diaphragm type:Manual
Aperture control:Aperture ring
Number of blades:8 (eight)
Focusing:
Closest focusing distance:0.3m
Magnification ratio:1:5.2
Focusing modes:Manual focus only
Manual focus control:Focusing ring
Perspective control mechanism:
Shift range:-11..0..+11mm
Tilt range:-10..0..+10°
Lens rotation:Yes
Tilt/Shift rotation:-
Physical characteristics:
Weight:550g
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀67×74.5mm
Accessories:
Filters:Screw-type 58mm
Lens hood:BW-58B - Bayonet-type round
Teleconverters:<No data>
Sources of data:
1. Manufacturer's technical data.
2. Canon FD instructions (PUB. II01-012A) (October 1978).
3. Canon FD interchangeable lenses booklet (PUB. IE01-075) (May 1979).
4. Specifications of Canon New FD lenses (PUB. C-II-099B) (July 1981).
5. Canon FD lenses booklet (PUB. CE1001J) (December 1974).
6. Canon FD interchangeable lenses booklet (PUB. C-IE-075AF) (May 1981).
7. Canon FD interchangeable lenses instructions (PUB. A5368) (February 1974).
8. Canon interchangeable lenses sales guide.
9. Quick reference guide.
10. Canon AE-1 booklet (PUB. CE1057) (June 1976).
11. Canon AE-1 Program booklet (PUB. C-CE-124) (December 1980).
12. Canon AL-1 Quick focus booklet (PUB. C-CE-135A) (January 1982).
13. Canon EF instructions (PUB. IE 1008P) (May 1976).
14. Canon F-1 booklet (PUB. CE1017F) (December 1975).
15. The New F-1 World booklet.
16. Canon A-1 booklet (PUB. C-CE-0990) (September 1980).
17. Canon AE-1 booklet (PUB. C-CE-1056AB) (September 1980).
18. Canon AT-1 booklet (PUB. CE1065) (November 1976).
19. Canon F-1 booklet (PUB. NO5367Q) (September 1974).
20. The pinnacle of optical perfection. Canon FD lenses booklet (PUB. CE1006F) (March 1973).
21. Canon FD lenses sales guide.
22. Canon FD lenses inctructions (PUB. A5368z) (January 1978).
23. Canon interchangeable lenses FD booklet (PUB. C-IE-075AQ) (March 1982).
24. Canon FD lenses instructions (PUB. II01-061I) (July 1979).
25. Canon FD lenses booklet (PUB. CE-1006J) (September 1974).
26. Canon FD interchangeable lenses booklet (PUB. C-IE-075AL) (December 1981).
27. Canon FD Lenses in a Nutshell booklet (PUB. IE-1033Q) (April 1979).
28. Canon AE-1 - A new generation booklet (PUB. CE1056A) (July 1976).
29. Canon Products Guide (PUB. C5077d) (January 1973).
30. Canon AE-1 booklet (PUB. C-CE-1056Y) (February 1980).
31. Canon Products Guide (PUB. E5077t) (April 1978).
32. Canon Products Guide (PUB. D5077k) (November 1975).
33. Canon Products Guide (PUB. CE01-114B) (July 1979).
34. Canon AT-1 booklet (PUB. CE1074H) (December 1977).
35. Canon EF instructions (PUB. IE 1008L) (September 1975).

Manufacturer description #1

This unusual lens has a vertical tilt for altering perspective and a horizontal shift for altering depth of field independent of aperture. It can be rotated on its mount for tilting/shifting in any direction, and it has a floating system for uniform sharpness over the entire image even at its 30cm (1 ft.) minimum focusing distance. It is especially suited to architectural photography where it can be used, for instance, to correct the "backward-leaning effect" of tall buildings, or for oblique shots of walls, shop fronts, trains. It is most appreciated for its ability to stretch depth of field without having to stop down. Since it also has great potential in exaggerating perspective or understating depth of field, it is also a handy tool for exercising individual expression.

Manufacturer description #2

The world first "tilt and shift" wide angle lens for 35mm SLR cameras. The "tilt and shift" mechanism changes relation between the lens optical axis and the film plane to obtain special effects. "Tilting" is used to swing the plane of focus so that it is not parallel with the film plane. You can adjust focus using the tilt mechanism to a very shallow or a very deep zone without change of aperture. "Shifting" is used to correct or enhance perspective distortion, shifting the optical axis from the center of the film plane. The tapering off of the building in the picture can corrected by "shifting" the TS lens easily. The "TS" stands for "tilt and shift". The image circle has been increased from 43mm to 58mm to cover the entire negative at maximum tilt and shift.

Manufacturer description #3

The TS 35mm f2.8 is a lens of remarkable capabilities. It shifts off the optical axis for correction of perspective distortion, special effects and shooting around stationary obstacles. In addition, it tilts on or off axis to increase depth-of-field at any aperture, utilizing the Scheimpflug principle a technique previously available only to view camera users. This feature will be appreciated by product or architectural photographers who must maintain absolute image sharpness under difficult conditions. To insure a high degree of image sharpness and even illumination, the image circle has been increased.

Manufacturer description #4

It is indispensable for shooting distortion-free architectural photographs. Tilting and shifting can be performed individually or in combination. Shooting range and the depth of the field can be controlled. Diffused reflection has been eliminated with Canon's multi-layer coating treatment technique. At the same time, Canon's Floating System was adopted to prevent image degradation in close-up photography.

Manufacturer description #5

This is a special type of lens that can provide both tilting and shifting simultaneously and its high performance comes to enhance the F-1 System's versatility. It compensates perspective by shifting and, at the same time, it extends the depth of field by tilting the lens. It covers an image circle of 58mm and it eliminates flare completely.

From the Modern Photography magazine (March 1974)

Most 35mm photographers don't think of their SLR's as miniature view cameras capable of tilting and shifting the lens for perspective corrections. But there are more than a few architectural, industrial and scientific photographers who wish they could borrow these movements from their large, slow, but supremely flexible view cameras and graft them onto their nimble, compact 35's. It's hardly a new idea. A few camera and lens manufacturers, such as Schneider and Nikon, presently offer perspective correction lenses in the 35mm format. But because of the complex mechanical and optical requirements, nobody had heretofore succeeded in incoporating both shifting and tilting movements in one 35mm lens body.

To build in both capabilities, you must start with a well-cor­rected lens having a very large covering power, and then mount it in a very complex. mechanically precise barrel. Canon finally took up the challenge.

Though hardly diminutive for a 35mm f/2.8, Canon's TS (for tilt and shift) lens looks rather small for such an involved mechanism because of its fine black finish. It is actually 3 1/16 in. long, 3 1/3 in. wide (at the widest part where the shift control knob extends 1 1/4 in. from the barrel) and weighs a hefty 1 lb. 3 oz. Of course, you can hand hold the TS for field shooting, but it's primarily designed to do its job on a tripod-mounted camera where you can check the finder image with maximum precision. And while the Canon FTb's or F-1's viewing standard screen may also be used (minus the microprism with the lens in tilted position), Canon recommends that F-1 owners use a "D" screen with the TS lens. This is a completely matte screen which has graph paper style lines crossing its entire surface. The matte surface helps you focus to the corners of the field, while the cross lines show the degree of perspective correction.

This lens does not have an automatic diaphragm because the tilt-and-shift mechanism is so complex they couldn't fit it in. Fortunately, it really doesn't need one for the slow, deliberate type of shooting that is this lens' forte. A manual diaphragm is actually advantageous with a lens that must be stopped down frequently to check which planes of the subject are in focus at shooting aperture. So, when you meter with this lens, you also do so at the working aperture.

Now let's see how those tilting and shifting mechanisms work. Just behind the front-mount focusing and aperture rings is a curved arc-shaped metal flange which slides smoothly towards either side on a similarly shaped base as you turn a lightly-knurled, 5/8-in. wide knob atop the lens. Right in front of this knob is a red-and-white degree scale, the central portion of which is white to indicate that shifting the lens (while tilting) is possible within this marked 6° (3° either side of center) range without going beyond the lens' image circle. Beyond the white scale area, there are red marks up to 8° on either side of the center line - the maximum tilt angle. On the bottom of the lens, exactly 180° from the tilt-control knob, is another knob which locks the lens in any tilted position. If you tilt the lens toward the subject the proper amount, you can considerably increase the useful depth of field without stopping the lens down - just like a view camera. But here the view camera analogy breaks down. Most view camera lenses are of normal construction - that is, they have fixed nodal points. If you tilt such a lens at the central part of its barrel. the resulting image shift is very small and you usually don't need to refocus. But since the TS Canon is an inverted-telephoto-type lens, it sticks out rather far from the nodal point to begin with and even further when you tilt the lens toward the edge of its image circle. As a result, the nodal point is just not in the same place it was before. Put simply, quite a bit of image shift occurs when you tilt an inverted-telephoto lens and, consequently, you must recompose the framing of the picture and check corner-to-corner sharpness.

So far, we've been talking about this lens with its tilt mechanism oriented horizontally (the vantage point that allows you to view all clearly engraved white-on-black numerals on the 3/16-in. wide, click-wholestopped aperture ring from directly above). But what if you want to tilt the lens vertically? No problem. Just grab it by the squared-off rear part of the barrel and turn it up to 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise for a total on-axis turning capability of 180°. For convenience, there are detents every 30° and yet another detent for the non-tilted position.

Now, on to the shifts. Obviously, the lens' turnability enables any shift movements to be used for rising and falling as well as sliding (or shifting) horizontally, depending on where you turn the lens mount In any case, as you turn the knob nearest the camera body, the whole body of the lens (including the tilting mechanism) moves in a plane parallel to the film plane. The central 7mm shift on either side of the center position is indicated by white scales. Beyond 7mm, the shift is indicated by a red scale to warn you that you cannot shift that much while tilting. Otherwise, your pictures may suffer from image cutoff.

Normally, this lens comes with its tilting movement set at right angles to the shift. In extreme applications, you might prefer that both movements be controlled in parallel. Canon made the base flange of the lens (just in front of the shift mechanism) perfect for just such requirements. Just bring your TS Canon lens to any authorized Canon service station and they'll shift your tilts and shifts to suit you in about a minute. It's so simple we're tempted to tell you to do it yourself, but there's a snag. The screws on all late-model Canon lenses are locked in place by a special bonding substance that resists vibration and, unless you're experienced and have precisely the right tools, you'll probably scratch the beautifully finished lens barrel. By the way, if your TS Canon doesn't quite clear the tripod platform in tilted position, that's no problem - the lens comes with a Canon Tripod Adapter which raises the camera body clear of the mechanism.

Other shift lenses in the Canon FD system

Canon FD mount (1)
Canon FDn TS 35mm F/2.8M9 - 80.30m⌀58

Lenses with similar focal length

Sorted by manufacturer name

Interchangeable mount (2)
Schneider-Kreuznach PC-Curtagon 35mm F/4 MCM7 - 60.30m⌀49
Schneider-Kreuznach PA-Curtagon 35mm F/4M7 - 60.30m⌀49 1967 
Subscribe
Notify of
guest

Copy this code

and paste it here *

0 comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Copyright © 2012-2024 Evgenii Artemov. All rights reserved. Translation and/or reproduction of website materials in any form, including the Internet, is prohibited without the express written permission of the website owner.

Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

MF

Sorry, no additional information is available.

Lens rotation

By using rotation, the direction of the entire lens can be switched.

Tilt/Shift rotation

By using Tilt/Shift rotation, the relationship of the tilt and shift operation directions can be switched from right angle to parallel.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Floating element system

Provides correction of aberrations and ensures constantly high image quality at the entire range of focusing distances from infinity down to the closest focusing distance. It is particularly effective for the correction of field curvature that tends to occur with large-aperture, wide-angle lenses when shooting at close ranges.

The basic mechanism of the floating element system is also incorporated into the internal and rear focusing methods.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/2.8 on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.