Sony FE 400mm F/2.8 GM OSS (SEL400F28GM)

Super telephoto prime lens • Digital era

FE The lens is designed for Sony 35mm full-frame digital mirrorless cameras but can be also used on APS-C digital mirrorless cameras.
GM Professional lens with high quality optics and robust build. Meets the highest standards and provides excellent performance and flawless image quality unachievable with traditional optical technologies.
OSS The lens is equipped with Optical SteadyShot.

Designed for

Click to expand or collapse section(s)

Features highlight

Fast
3 FL
1 ED
11 blades
IF
Dual XD LM
Focus limiter
OSS
OSS Mode 1
OSS Mode 2
OSS Mode 3
DP/WR
FC
Drop-in filters

Specification

Production details
Announced:June 2018
Production status: In production
Production type:Mass production
Original name:SONY FE 2.8/400 GM OSS
Optical design
Focal length:400mm
Speed:F/2.8
Maximum format:35mm full frame
Mount:Sony E
Diagonal angle of view:6.2° (35mm full frame)
(Sony E APS-C)
Lens construction:23 elements - 17 groups
3 FL, 1 ED
Diaphragm mechanism
Number of blades:11
Focusing
Closest focusing distance:2.7m
Maximum magnification ratio:1:6.25 at the closest focusing distance
Focusing method:Internal focusing (IF)
Focusing modes:Autofocus, manual focus
Manual focus control:Focusing ring
Autofocus motor:Dual XD Linear Motor
Focus mode selector:AF - MF
Direct Manual Focus (DMF):Determined by the camera
Focusing distance range limiter:FULL;2.7-7;7-
Optical SteadyShot (OSS)
Built-in OSS:Yes
OSS features:Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
OSS efficiency:<No information>
Physical characteristics
Weight:2895g
Maximum diameter x Length:⌀158.1×359mm
Weather sealing:Dust-proof and water-resistant barrel
Fluorine coating:Front element
Accessories
Filters:Removable front filters are not accepted
Additional features:Drop-in filter holder (40.5mm)
Lens hood:Slip-on ALC-SH155 (round)
Teleconverters:<No information>

*) Source of data: Manufacturer's technical data.

**) Some basic information is missing in the specification as it was not provided by the manufacturer.

Manufacturer description #1

Sony Introduces the Long-Awaited 400mm F2.8 G Master™ Prime Lens

Sony Electronics - 06/27/2018

SAN DIEGO, June 27, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Sony – a worldwide leader in digital imaging and the world's largest image sensor manufacturer – has today announced the highly anticipated FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS large aperture super-telephoto prime lens (model SEL400F28GM).

The product of extensive research and testing, Sony's new FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS lens is the first large aperture super-telephoto prime to join the E-mount lineup. This exciting new lens produces brilliant image quality with extraordinary focusing speed and precision, while also boasting the lightest weight in its classi and an extremely balanced design. It's the ideal choice for professional sports, wildlife and nature photographers, and a perfect complement to Sony's extensive lineup of high-speed E-mount bodies including α9, α7R III and more.

"We're extremely excited and proud to officially introduce the new 400mm F2.8 G Master prime lens," said Neal Manowitz, Vice President of digital imaging at Sony Electronics. "The latest in our flagship series of G Master Lenses, this new lens offers exceptional image quality and an innovative lightweight design that will give professionals a level of flexibility with a 400mm lens unlike anything they've ever experienced. Combined with the unmatched shooting speeds and autofocus capabilities of our full-frame E-mount cameras, it will allow them to capture and create in ways that were never before possible."

World's Lightest 400mm F2.8 Prime with Ideal Balance for Monopod or Handheld Shooting Weighing it at only slightly more than 6 lbs., the new FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS lens provides a level of portability and handheld maneuverability that has never before been achieved in a lens of its class. The remarkably light weight of this lens is achieved through an innovative optical design that includes three fluorite elements, with a reduced number of elements deployed at the front of the barrel, as well as the liberal usage of durable magnesium alloy components.

Repeated field tests and evaluation by professional photographers across the world have led to a lens design that is not front-heavy, reducing moment of inertia that resists rotation by up to 50% as compared to the SAL500F40Gii, ensuring quicker, more precise panning when shooting handheld or on a monopod.

To best take advantage of the rapidly evolving shooting and focusing speeds of Sony's latest cameras, the FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS lens features two newly developed high-speed XD (extreme dynamic) Linear Motors that drive the lens's focus group, achieving up to a 5x improvementiii in moving-subject tracking performance. These motors are supported by specially developed motion algorithms to minimize lag and instability, and control noise levels, resulting in exceptionally quick, accurate and quiet autofocus performance. This allows the lens to capture dynamic, fast moving athletes or wildlife with ease.

A member of Sony's flagship G Master series lenses, this new large aperture super-telephoto prime lens features an incredible level of image quality and detail, with outstanding contrast and resolution maintained all the way to the corners of the image. The unique optical design includes three fluorite elements that help to minimize chromatic aberration and suppress any amount of color bleeding. The lens has also been coated with Sony's original Nano AR coating to suppress any unwanted reflections, glare, or ghosting.

In addition to the impressive resolution, the lens features an 11-blade circular aperture mechanism that allows it to produce extremely natural and beautiful background defocus or 'bokeh'.

The new FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS is compatible with Sony's 1.4x and 2.0x E-mount tele-converters, producing outstanding imaging performance at extended focal lengthsiv while maintaining fast, precise AF performance.

To withstand the harsh conditions of sporting events and wildlife photography, Sony's new FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS is built with a durable magnesium alloy and a strong, lightweight carbon fiber hood. The lens is also dust and moisture resistantv, and its front element is coated with fluorine to resist dirt and fingerprints.

There is also an ample number of hard controls on the lens, including customizable focus-hold buttons in four different locations on the lens barrel, which can be programmed for control of features such as Eye AF functionality, if desired. There is also a 'Full-Time DMF' switch to immediately engage manual focus at any point, and a focus ring that features Linear Response MF for fine, responsive manual focus. Additionally, the new lens includes built-in optical stabilization for dynamic action and three different 'Mode' settings, including a brand new Mode 3vi setting with an advanced algorithm that ensures easier framing when following moving subjects. It also features a function ring with selectable 'Preset' and 'Functionvii' settings, which is a first for any Sony lens.

The FE 400mm F2.8 GM OSS includes a drop-in filter slotviii that accepts ø 40.5mm ND and other filter types, as well as the optional VF-DCPL1 Drop-in Circular Polarizing Filter. The VF-DCPL1 filter can be rotated to achieve the desired polarization while installed in the lens.

Manufacturer description #2

Sony's most advanced lens technologies have been unsparingly applied in this large-aperture super telephoto lens, achieving extraordinary speed, outstanding G Master resolution and bokeh, plus professional control and reliability. Moreover, the SEL400F28GM is a remarkably lightweight super telephoto lens, providing unparalleled handheld shooting freedom.

The XD Linear Motors used in the SEL400F28GM have been newly developed to deliver higher thrust and efficiency than conventional types in order to make the most of the rapidly evolving speed performance of current and future camera bodies. The linear motor design and component layout have been thoroughly revised to achieve significantly higher thrust. Two of these new motors are used in the SEL400F28GM, achieving up to a 5x improvement2 in moving-subject tracking performance. This means that the full speed performance of advanced camera bodies can be applied to capturing perfect images of the most dynamic sports or wildlife subjects. The XD motors are further supported by new algorithms developed specifically for them, notably improving the motors' response to control signals and minimizing lag and instability that can occur when driving a large aperture focus lens group for quiet, low-vibration operation.

All lenses bearing the G Master brand are designed to extremely high standards, ensuring that outstanding contrast at high spatial frequencies is maintained right out to the image edges. The optical design includes three fluorite elements that help to minimize axial chromatic aberration that can be a problem in large-aperture lenses, as well as lateral chromatic aberration that can reduce resolution towards the image periphery. Color bleeding is effectively suppressed, allowing clear reproduction of the finest subject details.

In addition to careful control of spherical aberration at the design stage, each lens is individually tested and adjusted during manufacture to achieve the highest possible bokeh quality. An 11-blade circular aperture mechanism further contributes to smooth circular bokeh. The SEL400F28GM allows the narrow depth of field achievable with a 400 mm F2.8 lens to be utilized to create images with deep, lush, defocused backgrounds.

Optional high-performance 1.4x and 2.0x tele-converters are supported, providing up to 800 mm focal length (1200 mm equivalent on APS-C bodies) with an F5.6 maximum aperture3. Outstanding imaging performance and fast, precise AF operation are maintained when either of these excellent tele-converters are used, ensuring that the lens's superior G Master image quality is not compromised.

An innovative optical design that includes three fluorite elements and reduces the number of elements deployed at the front of the lens barrel is behind the remarkably light weight of this fine lens. Another weight-reducing factor is the use of durable magnesium alloy components in the barrel. The SEL400F28GM weighs just 102.2 oz (2,895 g), providing portability and handheld maneuverability that active photographers will appreciate. Repeated field tests and evaluation by professional photographers has led to a design that is not front-heavy, reducing moment of inertia that resists rotation by up to approx. 50% compared to the SAL500F40G.4 Quicker, more precise panning is assured whether shooting handheld or on a monopod.

A durable magnesium alloy is used not only for the lens barrel exterior and tripod mount, but also for interior barrel components as well. This provides the tough durability that demanding professional applications require, while minimizing overall weight.

The dust- and moisture-resistant design provides the reliability needed for outdoor use in harsh conditions.

The number of mount attachment screws has been increased to ensure maximum rigidity and durability that will easily withstand professional use.

The supplied lens hood is made of strong, lightweight carbon fiber, with interior flocking for optimum light control.

The front lens element features a fluorine coating that helps to prevent dirt and fingerprints from sticking, while making it easier to wipe dirt and fingerprints away if they do become attached to the lens surface.

Optical image stabilization is built in, making it easier to capture sharp images when shooting handheld. In addition to the Mode 2 setting that is provided for panning shots, the SEL400F28GM features a new Mode 36 setting with an advanced algorithm that ensures easier framing when following moving subjects. Mode 36 provides optimum stabilization for tracking and shooting dynamic, unpredictable sports action. 5-axis image stabilization becomes available when the SEL400F28GM is used with an α body that features in-body image stabilization.

When the FULL TIME DMF switch is ON, manual focus is immediately engaged by simply rotating the focus ring, even while shooting in the AF-C mode. If AF causes focus to shift to a different subject while shooting, the focus ring can be used to quickly bring focus back to the desired subject. In situations where the user wants to fine-tune focus manually after initial AF, the body's shutter button half-press focus function can be turned off and AF assigned to a different button, making it easy to use the focus ring for final focus after initial AF has been achieved. The ability to instantly switch to manual focus can also be useful when it is necessary to focus beyond a set focus range limit.

A dedicated trunk style hard case is supplied to protect the lens from shock and vibration during transport.

The focus ring features Linear Response MF for fine, responsive manual focus control. Focus changes linearly in response to focus ring rotation, giving you the control immediacy needed for fast, accurate manual focusing.

The SEL400F28GM includes a new function ring with switch selectable PRESET (preset focus) and FUNCTION settings. Functions such as Power Focus can be assigned to the FUNCTION mode via a camera body menu.

Focus hold buttons are provided in four locations on the lens barrel for easy access in any shooting situation. The focus hold buttons can be customized via a camera body menu, allowing them to be assigned a function selected by the user: Eye AF, for example.

When the function ring select switch is set to FUNCTION and the function ring is rotated, focus shifts smoothly at a speed determined by the amount of function ring rotation. This allows smooth focus shift for movies.

When the function ring select switch is set to FUNCTION, the function ring can be rotated to switch between APS-C and full-frame angles of view.

The SET button is initially used to memorize the desired focus point. If the mode switch is then set to the PRESET position, moving the function ring in either direction will immediately set focus to the memorized point. This can be a huge advantage for sports and other rapidly changing situations, allowing focus to be preset in advance and instantly recalled to ensure that the decisive moment is properly captured. This function is available whether shooting with AF or MF, and can focus outside a set focus limit range.

The SEL400F28GM includes a filter slot that accepts ø 40.5 mm ND and other filter types, as well as the optional VF-DCPL1 drop-in circular polarizer. The VF-DCPL1 circular polarizer can be rotated to achieve the desired polarization while installed in the lens.

The tripod collar ring employs bearings to ensure smooth rotation as well as high reliability. The tripod collar ring also features 90-degree click stops and a switch that engages or disengages the click stops as required. With the click stops engaged it is easy to shift quickly between horizontal and vertical camera orientations. The click stops can be disengaged when smooth, low-resistance operation is desired.

The focus range limit switch allows a limited focus range to be selected when the fastest possible focusing is required. Three settings are provided: FULL, 7 m–2.7 m, and ∞–7 m.

Typical application

distant subjects, distant landscapes with perspective compression effect, sports, wild nature

Notes and recommendations

  • Use of a tripod is needed due to heavy weight of the lens

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35mm full frame

43.27 24 36
  • Dimensions: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm

Travellers' choice

Note

Among autofocus lenses designed for 35mm full-frame mirrorless cameras only. Speed of standard and telephoto lenses is taken into account.

Professional lens (Top class)

One of the best fast super telephoto primes

According to lens-db.com; among lenses designed for the same maximum format and mount.

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Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

XD Linear Motor

Focusing distance range limiter

The lens features focusing distance range limiter which allows to choose between the following focusing distance ranges:

FULLFull range of focusing distances.
2.7m - 7mRange of focusing distances suitable for shooting nearby subjects.
7m - ∞Range of focusing distances suitable for shooting distant subjects.

By setting the suitable focusing distance range, the actual autofocusing time can be shorter.

AF - MF

AFAutofocus mode.
MFManual focus mode.

Drop-in filter holder

A drop-in filter holder with a neutral filter comes with the lens. The holder accepts 40.5mm filters. The filter holder must be always in place because the filter is a part of the lens optical system.

Aspherical elements

Aspherical elements (ASPH, XA, XGM) are used in wide-angle lenses for correction of distortion and in large-aperture lenses for correction of spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma, thus ensuring excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. The effect of the aspherical element is determined by its position within the optical formula: the more the aspherical element moves away from the aperture stop, the more it influences distortion; close to the aperture stop it can be particularly used to correct spherical aberration. Aspherical element can substitute one or several regular spherical elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Use of aspherical elements has its downsides: it leads to non-uniform rendering of out-of-focus highlights. This effect usually appears as "onion-like" texture of concentric rings or "wooly-like" texture and is caused by very slight defects in the surface of aspherical element. It is difficult to predict such effect, but usually it occurs when the highlights are small enough and far enough out of focus.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Low dispersion elements

Low dispersion elements (ED, LD, SD, UD etc) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. This type of glass exhibits low refractive index, low dispersion, and exceptional partial dispersion characteristics compared to standard optical glass. Two lenses made of low dispersion glass offer almost the same performance as one fluorite lens.

Canon's Super UD, Nikon's Super ED, Pentax' Super ED, Sigma's FLD ("F" Low Dispersion), Sony' Super ED and Tamron's XLD glasses are the highest level low dispersion glasses available with extremely high light transmission. These optical glasses have a performance equal to fluorite glass.

High-refraction low-dispersion elements

High-refraction low-dispersion elements (HLD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

High Index, High Dispersion elements

High Index, High Dispersion elements (HID) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Anomalous partial dispersion elements

Anomalous partial dispersion elements (AD) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture.

Fluorite elements

Synthetic fluorite elements (FL) minimize chromatic aberrations and ensure excellent sharpness and contrast even at fully open aperture. Compared with optical glass, fluorite lenses have a considerably lower refraction index, low dispersion and extraordinary partial dispersion, and high transmission of infrared and ultraviolet light. They are also significantly lighter than optical glass.

According to Nikon, fluorite easily cracks and is sensitive to temperature changes that can adversely affect focusing by altering the lens' refractive index. To avoid this, Canon, as the manufacturer most widely using fluorite in its telephoto lenses, never uses fluorite in the front and rear lens elements, and the white coating is applied to the lens barrels to reflect light and prevent the lens from overheating.

Short-wavelength refractive elements

High and specialized-dispersion elements (SR) refract light with wavelengths shorter than that of blue to achieve highly precise chromatic aberration compensation. This technology also results in smaller and lighter lenses.

Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics

Organic Blue Spectrum Refractive Optics material (BR Optics) placed between convex and concave elements made from conventional optical glass provides more efficient correction of longitudinal chromatic aberrations in comparison with conventional technology.

Diffraction elements

Diffraction elements (DO, PF) cancel chromatic aberrations at various wavelengths. This technology results in smaller and lighter lenses in comparison with traditional designs with no compromise in image quality.

High refractive index elements

High refractive index elements (HR, HRI, XR etc) minimize field curvature and spherical aberration. High refractive index element can substitute one or several regular elements to achieve similar or better optical results, which allows to develop more compact and lightweight lenses.

Apodization element

Apodization element (APD) is in fact a radial gradient filter. It practically does not change the characteristics of light beam passing through its central part but absorbs the light at the periphery. It sort of softens the edges of the aperture making the transition from foreground to background zone very smooth and results in very attractive, natural looking and silky smooth bokeh.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance from the lens mount to the film or sensor can also be different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Flange focal distance

The flange focal distance (FFD), sometimes called the "flange back", is the distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Electromagnetic diaphragm control system

Provides highly accurate diaphragm control and stable auto exposure performance during continuous shooting.

Fixed focus

There is no helicoid in this lens and everything is in focus from the closest focusing distance to infinity.

Overall linear extension

The entire lens optical system moves straight backward and forward when focusing is carried out. This is the simplest type of focusing used mainly in wide-angle and standard prime lenses. It has the advantage of introducing relatively little change in aberrations with respect to change in focusing distance. With telephoto and super telephoto lenses this method becomes less beneficial in terms of operability because of the increased size and weight of the lens system.

Front group linear extension

The rear group remains fixed and only the front group moves straight backward and forward during focusing. This method is primarily used in zoom lenses and allows to design comparatively simple lens construction, but also places restrictions on zoom magnification and size reduction.

Front group rotational extension

The lens barrel section holding the front lens group rotates to move the front group backward and forward during focusing. This method of focusing is also used only in zoom lenses.

Internal focusing (IF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned between the front lens group and the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Rear focusing (RF)

Focusing is performed by moving one or more lens groups positioned behind the diaphragm.

Methods of internal and rear focusing have the following advantages:

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front and/or rear lens elements over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Efficiency of image stabilizer

The efficiency of image stabilizer is measured in stops and each stop corresponds to a two-times increase of shutter speed. For example, if you are shooting at focal length of 80mm and it is known that the efficiency of image stabilizer is 3 stops, it means that during handheld shooting at such focal length you can use shutter speed of 1/10 second which is exactly 23 times longer than the shutter speed 1/80 second needed to obtain sharp image in sufficient lighting conditions.

Hybrid IS

The image stabilizer has Hybrid IS technology which corrects not only angle but also shift camera shake, which is more pronounced in close-range shooting when a camera moves parallel to the imaging scene. Hybrid IS dramatically enhances the effects of image stabilization during shooting, including macro shooting, which had proven difficult for conventional image stabilization technologies.

XY-Shift

The image stabilizer has XY-Shift technology which corrects not only angle but also shift camera shake, which is more pronounced in close-range shooting when a camera moves parallel to the imaging scene. XY-Shift dramatically enhances the effects of image stabilization during shooting, including macro shooting, which had proven difficult for conventional image stabilization technologies.

Dynamic IS

The image stabilizer has Dynamic IS technology which especially effective when shooting while walking because it compensates strong camera shake. Dynamic IS activates automatically when the camera is set to movie shooting.

Mode 1

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake. Mainly effective for shooting still subjects.

Mode 2

Corrects vertical camera shake during following shots in a horizontal direction. Corrects horizontal camera shake during following shots in a vertical direction.

Mode 2

Corrects vertical camera shake during following shots in a horizontal direction.

Mode 2 (Intelligent OS)

The lens incorporates Intelligent OS with algorithm capable of panning in all directions. In Mode 2, the movements of subjects can be captured with panning effects even when the camera is moved horizontally, vertically, or diagonally — regardless of the position of the lens.

Mode 3

Corrects camera shake only during exposure. During panning shots, corrects camera shake during exposure only in one direction the same as Mode 2. Effective for following fast and irregulary moving subjects.

Panning Detection

The image stabilizer automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction.

Tripod Detection

It is often thought that image blur caused by camera shake can be prevented by using a tripod. Actually, however, even using a tripod may result in image blur because of tripod vibration caused by mirror or shutter movement at the time of exposure. The image stabilizer automatically differentiates the frequency of the vibration from that of camera shake, and changes algorithm to correct image blur caused by slight tripod vibration.

VR NORMAL

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake. Automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction.

VR ACTIVE

Corrects vertical and horizontal camera shake when shooting from a moving vehicle, or some other unstable position. Panning is not detected.

VR SPORT

Allows a continuous shooting frame rate and release time lag similar to those that are possible when image stabilizer is turned off. Automatically detects panning and then corrects camera shake only in one direction.

VR TRIPOD

It is often thought that image blur caused by camera shake can be prevented by using a tripod. Actually, however, even using a tripod may result in image blur because of tripod vibration caused by mirror or shutter movement at the time of exposure. The image stabilizer automatically differentiates the frequency of the vibration from that of camera shake, and changes algorithm to correct image blur caused by slight tripod vibration.