CONTAX I

35mm MF film rangefinder camera • Discontinued

Specification

Format:
35mm full frame
Film type:
135 cartridge-loaded film
Contax [34.85mm]
Shutter:
Type:
Focal-plane
Model:
Mechanical
Speeds:
1/2 - 1/1250 + B, T
Exposure:
Exposure metering:
None
Exposure modes:
Manual
Rangefinder and Viewfinder:
Rangefinder:
Built-in
Viewfinder:
Built-in
Bright-line frames:
-
Parallax compensation:
-
Physical characteristics:
Weight:
<No data>
Dimensions:
<No data>

Manufacturer description

In the CONTAX, Zeiss Ikon has produced a camera so universal in scope that it really represents several cameras in one. This extreme versatility is the result of many constructional features, of the use of interchangeable Zeiss lenses, and of numerous accessories. The CONTAX takes critically sharp negatives under the most difficult lighting and speed conditions. Indoors or out, in daylight or in ordinary artificial light, "CONTAX gets the picture."

With its load of thirty-six exposures on one roll, you can snap one shot after another in quick succession. Ready at an instant's notice, you catch your subjects unposed - true-to-life candid shots full of character and human interest... children at play, friends in interesting attitudes, banquet scenes, stage pictures, etc. And at sporting events your CONTAX will snap the fastest action, getting all the detail and tone value that make a picture pulse with life. If you are a nature fan you will find your CONTAX invaluable in taking telephoto shots of birds and wild animals, or close-up studies of insects, flowers, etc. Or if your interest lies along scientific lines, your same CONTAX can readily be adapted to the making of copies from books, charts, prints, etc., or photomicro pictures of every description.

In short, the CONTAX offers unlimited scope in picture making. It opens the way to new and exciting adventures in photography.

To secure such extremely sharp negatives as the CONTAX makes - negatives capable of considerable enlargement - 35 mm. motion picture film is used. The Zeiss lenses are especially designed to insure sharpest definition over the whole negative. Minutely accurate focusing - so necessary in the miniature camera - is assured by a mechanism of extra-ordinary precision, yet easily operated. The film lies absolutely flat in the film gate to insure the same accuracy as with the plate and plate-holder, and the shutter is so designed that all single points of the negative receive even exposure.

CONTAX is a product of Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, Europe's largest and leading camera concern. In design, construction, and operation, the CONTAX is the foremost 35 mm. miniature camera.

***

CONTAX is now available in two models, CONTAX I and the new CONTAX II. Basically, both models offer the same fundamental photographic possibilities and accommodate the same range of lenses and accessories. Tbey differ, however, in the following respects.

The CONTAX I is finished in nickel and black enamel, whereas the CONTAX II is finished in chromium, partly dull and partly bright.

In the new CONTAX II (Chromium) the range-finder and view-finder are combined in one opening, giving speedier manipulation and a larger image. The winding knob is situated on top of the camera with the shutter release conveniently located in the center of the knob. The top speed has been increased from 1/1000th to 1/1250th of a second. The whole scale of shutter speeds is always visible. Adjustments can be made both before and after winding the shutter, same as with CONTAX I. A self-timing device permits delayed action release for taking your own picture; the release takes place automatically after a delay of approximately twelve seconds. The same mechanism also permits an automatic exposure of one second.

The CONTAX I (Black) which has so many friends, will be continued. The new CONTAX II (Chromium) is priced somewhat higher.

***

CONSTRUCTION OF CONTAX

Shape of body

To avoid blurring due to movement of the camera during exposure, the camera must be firmly held by the photographer. Weight and dimension of the camera influence this. Research and actual experiment have proved that best results are obtained with a camera almost rectangular, with corners slightly rounded off. This is the shape of the CONTAX. The rectangular shape helps the operator to keep the camera level and to avoid a tilted position. The CONTAX has an all-metal body of light metal casting. Cast camera bodies are known for their rigidity.

Accessibility

All cameras, especially those using roll or motion picture film, must be kept thoroughly clean. Dust or small particles of film or perforation chips accumulate and may cause trouble. The surface around the picture aperture and the sliding track of the film require special attention. The interior of the CONTAX is easily and completely accessible. Simply remove the back, and the camera is open for easy and thorough cleaning. This removable back has many other advantages. First, it renders the insertion of daylight loading spools as easy as in any roll film camera, and further, it permits the use of a ground glass screen, plate back, and other accessories. This detachable back is made of a specially rigid metal. When fitted in place, the camera is absolutely light-tight, and the spring pressure plate ensures that the film will be kept flat in the pictnre aperture at all times.

Focusing

For negatives which are to be enlarged, as practically all miniature negatives are, there must be no guesswork. They must be absolutely clear and sharp. The only sure way of avoiding errors of focus is to couple the focusing mechanism of the lens wi th an accurate range-finder, as embodied in the CONTAX.

Operating the knnrled wheel actuates the range-finder and at the same time automatically focuses the lens.

The CONTAX Range-finder

The accuracy of an optical range-finder depends to a great extent upon the length of its so-called optical base. The ideal range-finder must cover the requirements of short- and long- distance photography.

The CONTAX is equipped with a range-finder of approximately the full length of the camera - about four inches. This gives it a high degree of accuracy for all lenses and for all distances.

The range-finder of the CONTAX is built-in so that it forms an integral part of the camera body and is completely protected against damage. It is of the wedge-type construction which is not only inherently more accurate but also more durable and shock-proof.

The range-finder gives an extremely bright and clear image. The mechanism of an optical range-finder brings together two images of the same object. When they are exactly superimposed the correct focus has been obtained. It is not always easy to superimpose images of the same color. Tinted glass, which is frequently used for one image, reduces up to forty percent of the light, and thereby greatly decreases the efficiency of a range-finder. The CONTAX avoids this disadvantage by the ingenious arrangement of a semi-transparent gilded mirror and a prism producing two images, one red and one green (complementary colors). These, when brought together in focus, produce one clear and brilliant object in approximately natural colors. The automatic coupling of the range-finder to the focusing mount of the lens insures an extremely high degree of accuracy in focusing.

The Automatic Focusing Device of the CONTAX

In designing the focusing mechanism of the CONTAX, two very important points had to be taken into consideration. First, the highest possible accuracy of mechanical parts; second, to make them immune to external influences which might destroy the exact relation between lens and measuring device. The mechanism was, therefore, designed to insure utmost accuracy. It was made solid, substantial, and rigid, so that it would withstand wear and tear, and it was housed within the camera so that all mechanical parts would be fully protected.

The user superimposes the images by observing the action of the range-finder, as he rotates the knurled wheel, which at the same time automatically focuses the lens. Once the two images are perfectly superimposed, their vertical lines forming one line, the lens is in exact and critical focus.

CONTAX lenses can be interchanged without altering the relative position of the focusing mechanism. It is always possible to use the range-finder even when the lens has been removed.

The CONTAX All-melal Focal-plane Shutter

A truly universal camera such as the CONTAX must be equipped with a focal-plane shutter, for only a focal-plane shutter permits of the shortest possible exposure and the best possible use of the light entering the lens. The CONTAX shutter travels over the shortest distance of the film, vertically, thereby assuring even illumination of the negative.

The focal-plane shutter of the CONTAX is automatically coupled with the film mechanism so that the winding of the shutter automatically transports the film. This prevents accidental double exposures. However, when desired, any number of consecutive exposures may be made on the same negative.

The CONTAX shutter is the result of many years of scientific and technical research, both with regard to design and material. The material is a light metal with unlimited durability and a tremendously greater resistance to changes in temperature and climate, as well as to mechanical wear and tear, than a focal-plane shutter made of any other material.

The shutter consists of two metal blinds set with extreme accuracy. The speeds of the shutter are:

for the CONTAX I (Black): 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, 1/200, 1/500, and 1/1000th of a second, B and T.

for the CONTAX II (Chromium): 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1250th of a second, B and T.

At all speeds, the CONTAX metal shutter runs smoothly and quietly. Exposures at 1/25th or 1/50th of a second, camera held in hand, show a sharpness not heretofore attained by amateur photographers, and the experienced photographer may quite easily use exposures of 1/10th or even 1/5th of a second with the camera held in hand.

The first focal-plane shutter ever produced was made by C. P. Goerz, now merged in Zeiss Ikon. The long and highly specialized experience of Zeiss Ikon with the difficult problem of design and construction of focal-plane shutters, has resulted in the all-metal focal-plane shutter which is used in the CONTAX, and which embodies their knowledge, tradition, and standards.

Picture Aperture and Film Guide

To obtain a perfect negative, it is, of course, necessary that the film lie absolutely flat - as flat as a plate. In the CONTAX the film passes through an extremely shallow channel with a spring pressure plate on the reverse side of the film. It is held absolutely flat and in the focal-plane, which insures the sharpest negative possible.

Film Loading

In the CONTAX - you use standard perforated 35 mm. motion picture film in lengths of approximately sixty-three inches. Each film spool gives thirty-six pictures of 24 x 36 mm., approximately 15/16 x 1 3/8 inches. The automatic exposure counter shows the number of exposures made.

Double exposures (except where delliberately intended) are completely eliminated by the automatic film transport which, when winding the shutter, automatically transports the film necessary for the next exposure.

We recommend the use of CONTAX daylight loading spools with paper leader and paper trailer, which are inserted and removed from the camera in plain daylight in the same manner as you would load and unload any roll film camera. CONTAX daylight loading spools are supplied by the leading film manufacturers throughout the world.

When the photographer desires to use bulk film which is more economical and may be obtained in lengths of twenty-five to one hundred feet or to use shorter lengths of film, magazines are provided which may be loaded in the dark room with the requisite lengths of film. It is possible to use two magazines, winding the film from one magazine into the other, so that the film may be removed from the camera after any given number of exposures.

Similar cameras (7)

35mm full frame • Manual focus • Film • Rangefinder • Contax mount
Model Shutter Metering Modes Year
Kiev-4
aka Киев-4
M, 1/1250 Window M 1957 
Kiev-4A
aka Киев-4А
M, 1/1250 -- M 1958 
Kiev-4AM
aka Киев-4АМ
M, 1/1000 -- M 1980 
Kiev-4M
aka Киев-4М
M, 1/1000 Window M 1976 
Kiev-5
aka Киев-5
M, 1/1000 Window M 1968 
Kiev-III[A]
aka Киев-III[А]
M, 1/1250 Window M 1952 
Kiev-II[A]
aka Киев-II[А]
M, 1/1250 -- M 1947 
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Copyright © 2012-2024 Evgenii Artemov. All rights reserved. Translation and/or reproduction of website materials in any form, including the Internet, is prohibited without the express written permission of the website owner.

Chromatic aberration

There are two kinds of chromatic aberration: longitudinal and lateral. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a variation in location of the image plane with changes in wave lengths. It produces the image point surrounded by different colors which result in a blurred image in black-and-white pictures. Lateral chromatic aberration is a variation in image size or magnification with wave length. This aberration does not appear at axial image points but toward the surrounding area, proportional to the distance from the center of the image field. Stopping down the lens has only a limited effect on these aberrations.

Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is caused because the lens is round and the film or image sensor is flat. Light entering the edge of the lens is more severely refracted than light entering the center of the lens. This results in a blurred image, and also causes flare (non-image forming internal reflections). Stopping down the lens minimizes spherical aberration and flare, but introduces diffraction.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism in a lens causes a point in the subject to be reproduced as a line in the image. The effect becomes worse towards the corner of the image. Stopping down the lens has very little effect.

Coma

Coma in a lens causes a circular shape in the subject to be reproduced as an oval shape in the image. Stopping down the lens has almost no effect.

Curvature of field

Curvature of field is the inability of a lens to produce a flat image of a flat subject. The image is formed instead on a curved surface. If the center of the image is in focus, the edges are out of focus and vice versa. Stopping down the lens has a limited effect.

Distortion

Distortion is the inability of a lens to capture lines as straight across the entire image area. Barrel distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to bow toward the center of the image, producing a barrel shape. Pincushion distortion causes straight lines at the edges of the frame to curve in toward the lens axis. Distortion, whether barrel or pincushion type, is caused by differences in magnification; stopping down the lens has no effect at all.

The term "distortion" is also sometimes used instead of the term "aberration". In this case, other types of optical aberrations may also be meant, not necessarily geometric distortion.

Diffraction

Classically, light is thought of as always traveling in straight lines, but in reality, light waves tend to bend around nearby barriers, spreading out in the process. This phenomenon is known as diffraction and occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening. Diffraction plays a paramount role in limiting the resolving power of any lens.

Doublet

Doublet is a lens design comprised of two elements grouped together. Sometimes the two elements are cemented together, and other times they are separated by an air gap. Examples of this type of lens include achromatic close-up lenses.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the maximum range of tones, from darkest shadows to brightest highlights, that can be produced by a device or perceived in an image. Also called tonal range.

Resolving power

Resolving power is the ability of a lens, photographic emulsion or imaging sensor to distinguish fine detail. Resolving power is expressed in terms of lines per millimeter that are distinctly recorded in the final image.

Vignetting

Vignetting is the darkening of the corners of an image relative to the center of the image. There are three types of vignetting: optical, mechanical, and natural vignetting.

Optical vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multi-element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease of the light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the aperture and can be completely cured by stopping down the lens. Two or three stops are usually sufficient.

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods.

Natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Wide-angle rangefinder designs are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Stopping down the lens cannot cure it.

Flare

Bright shapes or lack of contrast caused when light is scattered by the surface of the lens or reflected off the interior surfaces of the lens barrel. This is most often seen when the lens is pointed toward the sun or another bright light source. Flare can be minimized by using anti-reflection coatings, light baffles, or a lens hood.

Ghosting

Glowing patches of light that appear in a photograph due to lens flare.

Retrofocus design

Design with negative lens group(s) positioned in front of the diaphragm and positive lens group(s) positioned at the rear of the diaphragm. This provides a short focal length with a long back focus or lens-to-film distance, allowing for movement of the reflex mirror in SLR cameras. Sometimes called an inverted telephoto lens.

Anastigmat

A photographic lens completely corrected for the three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.

By the mid-20th century, the vast majority of lenses were close to being anastigmatic, so most manufacturers stopped including this characteristic in lens names and/or descriptions and focused on advertising other features (anti-reflection coating, for example).

Rectilinear design

Design that does not introduce significant distortion, especially ultra-wide angle lenses that preserve straight lines and do not curve them (unlike a fisheye lens, for instance).

Focus shift

A change in the position of the plane of optimal focus, generally due to a change in focal length when using a zoom lens, and in some lenses, with a change in aperture.

Transmittance

The amount of light that passes through a lens without being either absorbed by the glass or being reflected by glass/air surfaces.

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

When optical designers attempt to compare the performance of optical systems, a commonly used measure is the modulation transfer function (MTF).

The components of MTF are:

The MTF of a lens is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution from the object to the image. In other words, MTF is a way to incorporate resolution and contrast into a single specification.

Knowing the MTF curves of each photographic lens and camera sensor within a system allows a designer to make the appropriate selection when optimizing for a particular resolution.

Veiling glare

Lens flare that causes loss of contrast over part or all of the image.

Anti-reflection coating

When light enters or exits an uncoated lens approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in refractive index. This reflected light causes flare and ghosting, which results in deterioration of image quality. To counter this, a vapor-deposited coating that reduces light reflection is applied to the lens surface. Early coatings consisted of a single thin film with the correct refractive index differences to cancel out reflections. Multi-layer coatings, introduced in the early 1970s, are made up of several such films.

Benefits of anti-reflection coating:

Circular fisheye

Produces a 180° angle of view in all directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal).

The image circle of the lens is inscribed in the image frame.

Diagonal (full-frame) fisheye

Covers the entire image frame. For this reason diagonal fisheye lenses are often called full-frame fisheyes.

Extension ring

Extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio of lenses. They are mounted between the camera body and the lens. As a rule, the effect becomes stronger the shorter the focal length of the lens in use, and the longer the focal length of the extension ring.

View camera

A large-format camera with a ground-glass viewfinder at the image plane for viewing and focusing. The photographer must stick his head under a cloth hood in order to see the image projected on the ground glass. Because of their 4x5-inch (or larger) negatives, these cameras can produce extremely high-quality results. View cameras also usually support movements.

135 cartridge-loaded film

43.27 24 36
  • Introduced: 1934
  • Frame size: 36 × 24mm
  • Aspect ratio: 3:2
  • Diagonal: 43.27mm
  • Area: 864mm2
  • Double perforated
  • 8 perforations per frame

120 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated

120 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1901
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated

220 roll film

71.22 44 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 44mm
  • Aspect ratio: 11:14
  • Diagonal: 71.22mm
  • Area: 2464mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

79.2 56 56
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 56 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 1:1
  • Diagonal: 79.2mm
  • Area: 3136mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

220 roll film

89.64 56 70
  • Introduced: 1965
  • Frame size: 70 × 56mm
  • Aspect ratio: 5:4
  • Diagonal: 89.64mm
  • Area: 3920mm2
  • Unperforated
  • Double the length of 120 roll film

Shutter speed ring with "F" setting

The "F" setting disengages the leaf shutter and is set when using only the focal plane shutter in the camera body.

Catch for disengaging cross-coupling

The shutter and diaphragm settings are cross-coupled so that the diaphragm opens to a corresponding degree when faster shutter speeds are selected. The cross-coupling can be disengaged at the press of a catch.

Cross-coupling button

With the cross-coupling button depressed speed/aperture combinations can be altered without changing the Exposure Value setting.

M & X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for M- and X-settings so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In M-sync, the shutter closes the flash-firing circuit slightly before it is fully open to catch the flash at maximum intensity. The M-setting is used for Class M flash bulbs.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

X sync

The shutter is fully synchronized for X-setting so that you can work with flash at all shutter speeds.

In X-sync, the flash takes place when the shutter is fully opened. The X-setting is used for electronic flash.

Unable to follow the link

You are already on the page dedicated to this lens.

Cannot perform comparison

Cannot compare the lens to itself.

Image stabilizer

A technology used for reducing or even eliminating the effects of camera shake. Gyro sensors inside the lens detect camera shake and pass the data to a microcomputer. Then an image stabilization group of elements controlled by the microcomputer moves inside the lens and compensates camera shake in order to keep the image static on the imaging sensor or film.

The technology allows to increase the shutter speed by several stops and shoot handheld in such lighting conditions and at such focal lengths where without image stabilizer you have to use tripod, decrease the shutter speed and/or increase the ISO setting which can lead to blurry and noisy images.

Original name

Lens name as indicated on the lens barrel (usually on the front ring). With lenses from film era, may vary slightly from batch to batch.

Format

Format refers to the shape and size of film or image sensor.

35mm is the common name of the 36x24mm film format or image sensor format. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43mm. The name originates with the total width of the 135 film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame digital SLR. Historically the 35mm format was sometimes called small format to distinguish it from the medium and large formats.

APS-C is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the film negatives of 25.1x16.7mm with an aspect ratio of 3:2.

Medium format is a film format or image sensor format larger than 36x24mm (35mm) but smaller than 4x5in (large format).

Angle of view

Angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

As the focal length changes, the angle of view also changes. The shorter the focal length (eg 18mm), the wider the angle of view. Conversely, the longer the focal length (eg 55mm), the smaller the angle of view.

A camera's angle of view depends not only on the lens, but also on the sensor. Imaging sensors are sometimes smaller than 35mm film frame, and this causes the lens to have a narrower angle of view than with 35mm film, by a certain factor for each sensor (called the crop factor).

This website does not use the angles of view provided by lens manufacturers, but calculates them automatically by the following formula: 114.6 * arctan (21.622 / CF * FL),

where:

CF – crop-factor of a sensor,
FL – focal length of a lens.

Mount

A lens mount is an interface — mechanical and often also electrical — between a camera body and a lens.

A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock type. Modern camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body, unlike screw-threaded mounts.

Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Canon, Leica, Nikon, Pentax, Sony etc.) are always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance (distance from the mechanical rear end surface of the lens mount to the focal plane) is also different.

Lens construction

Lens construction – a specific arrangement of elements and groups that make up the optical design, including type and size of elements, type of used materials etc.

Element - an individual piece of glass which makes up one component of a photographic lens. Photographic lenses are nearly always built up of multiple such elements.

Group – a cemented together pieces of glass which form a single unit or an individual piece of glass. The advantage is that there is no glass-air surfaces between cemented together pieces of glass, which reduces reflections.

Focal length

The focal length is the factor that determines the size of the image reproduced on the focal plane, picture angle which covers the area of the subject to be photographed, depth of field, etc.

Speed

The largest opening or stop at which a lens can be used is referred to as the speed of the lens. The larger the maximum aperture is, the faster the lens is considered to be. Lenses that offer a large maximum aperture are commonly referred to as fast lenses, and lenses with smaller maximum aperture are regarded as slow.

In low-light situations, having a wider maximum aperture means that you can shoot at a faster shutter speed or work at a lower ISO, or both.

Closest focusing distance

The minimum distance from the focal plane (film or sensor) to the subject where the lens is still able to focus.

Closest working distance

The distance from the front edge of the lens to the subject at the maximum magnification.

Magnification ratio

Determines how large the subject will appear in the final image. Magnification is expressed as a ratio. For example, a magnification ratio of 1:1 means that the image of the subject formed on the film or sensor will be the same size as the subject in real life. For this reason, a 1:1 ratio is often called "life-size".

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Manual focus override in autofocus mode

Allows to perform final focusing manually after the camera has locked the focus automatically. Note that you don't have to switch camera and/or lens to manual focus mode.

Electronic manual focus override is performed in the following way: half-press the shutter button, wait until the camera has finished the autofocusing and then focus manually without releasing the shutter button using the focusing ring.

Manual diaphragm

The diaphragm must be stopped down manually by rotating the detent aperture ring.

Preset diaphragm

The lens has two rings, one is for pre-setting, while the other is for normal diaphragm adjustment. The first ring must be set at the desired aperture, the second ring then should be fully opened for focusing, and turned back for stop down to the pre-set value.

Semi-automatic diaphragm

The lens features spring mechanism in the diaphragm, triggered by the shutter release, which stops down the diaphragm to the pre-set value. The spring needs to be reset manually after each exposure to re-open diaphragm to its maximum value.

Automatic diaphragm

The camera automatically closes the diaphragm down during the shutter operation. On completion of the exposure, the diaphragm re-opens to its maximum value.

Fixed diaphragm

The aperture setting is fixed at F/ on this lens, and cannot be adjusted.

Number of blades

As a general rule, the more blades that are used to create the aperture opening in the lens, the rounder the out-of-focus highlights will be.

Some lenses are designed with curved diaphragm blades, so the roundness of the aperture comes not from the number of blades, but from their shape. However, the fewer blades the diaphragm has, the more difficult it is to form a circle, regardless of rounded edges.

At maximum aperture, the opening will be circular regardless of the number of blades.

Weight

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

Maximum diameter x Length

Excluding case or pouch, caps and other detachable accessories (lens hood, close-up adapter, tripod adapter etc.).

For lenses with collapsible design, the length is indicated for the working (retracted) state.

Weather sealing

A rubber material which is inserted in between each externally exposed part (manual focus and zoom rings, buttons, switch panels etc.) to ensure it is properly sealed against dust and moisture.

Lenses that accept front mounted filters typically do not have gaskets behind the filter mount. It is recommended to use a filter for complete weather resistance when desired.

Fluorine coating

Helps keep lenses clean by reducing the possibility of dust and dirt adhering to the lens and by facilitating cleaning should the need arise. Applied to the outer surface of the front lens element over multi-coatings.

Filters

Lens filters are accessories that can protect lenses from dirt and damage, enhance colors, minimize glare and reflections, and add creative effects to images.

Lens hood

A lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background.

The geometry of the lens hood can vary from a plain cylindrical or conical section to a more complex shape, sometimes called a petal, tulip, or flower hood. This allows the lens hood to block stray light with the higher portions of the lens hood, while allowing more light into the corners of the image through the lowered portions of the hood.

Lens hoods are more prominent in long focus lenses because they have a smaller viewing angle than that of wide-angle lenses. For wide angle lenses, the length of the hood cannot be as long as those for telephoto lenses, as a longer hood would enter the wider field of view of the lens.

Lens hoods are often designed to fit onto the matching lens facing either forward, for normal use, or backwards, so that the hood may be stored with the lens without occupying much additional space. In addition, lens hoods can offer some degree of physical protection for the lens due to the hood extending farther than the lens itself.

Teleconverters

Teleconverters increase the effective focal length of lenses. They also usually maintain the closest focusing distance of lenses, thus increasing the magnification significantly. A lens combined with a teleconverter is normally smaller, lighter and cheaper than a "direct" telephoto lens of the same focal length and speed.

Teleconverters are a convenient way of enhancing telephoto capability, but it comes at a cost − reduced maximum aperture. Also, since teleconverters magnify every detail in the image, they logically also magnify residual aberrations of the lens.

Lens caps

Scratched lens surfaces can spoil the definition and contrast of even the finest lenses. Lens covers are the best and most inexpensive protection available against dust, moisture and abrasion. Safeguard lens elements - both front and rear - whenever the lens is not in use.